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Lecture 11

HIST 1055 Lecture 11: Lecture 11 Competition (England)

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Boston College
HIST 1055

Competition English Settlement I. Imperial Competition ○ Systems in place by 1650 CE ○ We’ve already talked about ■ Mesoamerican political changes during conquest period ■ Spanish: conquest, gold/silver mining ■ Portuguese: sugar growing (“production”) ■ Asante: production of slaves ■ Dutch: sugar processing, shipping, finance ■ French: fur trading, missionaries ■ NOW: English: from pirates to settlers and planters ○ North America ■ Huge population increase in British North American colonies from 1650- 1750 (1.1 million) II. Origins of English-Spanish Rivalry ○ Henry VII of Tudor won war of roses and was looking to stabilize his new conquests (unified england) by setting up Henry VIII ○ Henry VIII (England) marries Catherine of Aragon (Spain) (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) and consolidate the state - England was less prosperous than Spain ○ Catherine and Henry have a daughter not a son which Henry is pissed about ○ Henry asks Pope to annul the marriage so he can marry again and have a son - Pope says no (to keep states together/England prosperous) ○ So Henry ignores Pope and just sets aside Catherine and marries again → ignorance of the Pope is part of what led to the split of Protestants/Catholics ○ But Henry’s son dies young so Mary I (daughter of Catherine of Aragon gets inheritance) ○ Mary I marries Philip II of Spain and they try to re-Catholicize England and expel Protestants ○ Elizabeth I Stabilizes Church of England (Protestant) - accepts Catholics and Protestants basically ○ But now England and Spain rivalry = due to Catherine cast aside and Spain
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