HIST 1084 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Under New Management, Caudillo, Peninsulars

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6 Feb 2017
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The Americas Recast
1800-1862
End of Spanish dominance
Massive immigration
Industrialization
Wars of independence
Negotiating place in globalizing world
Americas, 1800-1830: Under New Management
Independent states
1808: Napoleon Invades Spain and Portugal
Napoleon ousts King Ferdinand VII
Triggers war between France and Spanish/British
Cadiz Cortes
1812 liberal constitution
Colonial elites in Latin America face choice: king or cortes?
America’s opportunity
In Latin America, local juntas elites form
F7 returns as absolutist 1814
Cancels 1812 Constitution
Disappoints colonies
Chain reaction towards independence
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830
Soldier, hero, “El Libertador”
Venezuelan
Europeam experience impressed (1799-1807)
Leads South American struggle until 1830
Liberal but had limits
“Washington, Lincoln, and Roosevelt rolled into one.”
Digging Up the Past
Bolivar dies 1830
July 2010, President Chavez exhumes Bolivar’s body
Confirms identity and claims, ‘It is me, but I awaken every 100 years when the people
awaken’
Claim to be a reincarnation
The New America's: Ideological Battleground
Elites split along Conservative/Liberal ideologies
Social structure rigid and wealth concentrated in few huge landowners
Brazil: (1822) independent monarchy
Even Bolivar (Venezuela), San Martin (Chile) mistrusted poor population
Promoters of liberation
Creoles vs. Peninsulares
Latin America & Industrial Development
War devastation
Sparse population, huge land mass
No incentive to innovate (slavery, plantations)
Culturally colonized for centuries
Caudillo culture
“The deed is done, the nail is driven, Spanish America is free, and if we do not
mismanage our affairs sadly, it is English.”
Caudillo culture
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