HIST 1084 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Iwakura Mission, Ganghwado, Charter Oath

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15 Feb 2017
Department
Course
Professor
Imperial China: 1800-1900
Ambitious imperial forces
China looked down upon foreigners
No longer exist as an empire in 1912
The Celestial Empire: Back to the Future
2000 years
Qing Dynasty: 1644-1912
Stable and long-lived
Anchor that helps it last
Kangxi 1661-1722
Qianlong 1735-1796
Confucianism
Unity
ethical/ religious
Respect for elders and hierarchy
stability
Tribute System
Trade system
Gifts
Not equal
Silk, porcelain have strong bargaining power
Global superpower
Did not see need to push forward
Thank, but no Thanks!
“Our celestial empire possesses all the things in prolific abundance. There was,
therefore, no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians.- Emperor
Qianlong to King George III of Great Britain, 1793
Termed foreigners barbarians
Showing of self confidence
Celestial Empire Crashes to Earth
By 1912, Qing era and Celestial Power over
Empire carved up by foreign barbarians
Force foreign goods upon Chinese
Lost revenue, ports
Forced to open doors to west, destabilizing
End of 4000 years of Imperial Power
How did this happen so fast?
Internal Issues
Population explosion without diversification
1685: 100m; 1853: 430m
Poverty, starvation
Failing central state authority
Weak armines
Silver outflow
Foreign forces will force it ot accept goods and take silver
Opium
External Issues
1840-1849: “Century of Humiliation”
Opium trade
Indian grown British crop
Trade surplus turns to deficit
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