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Lecture 20

HIST 1093 Lecture 20: L20 The Scientific Revolution

3 Pages

Course Code
HIST 1093
Jane E Regan

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Causes and Characteristics of the Scientific Revolution: ● Demystification of the universe ● Gradual implementation of scientific processes ● Causes ○ Needed knowledge from the new world for profits ■ Supplemented classical knowledge with observation and experimentation ○ Navigation, metal, mining, printing and gunsmithing were becoming superior to knowledge from classical sources ● Characteristics ○ Simultaneous advances in both scientific and technological knowledge ■ Galileo: telescope, product of advances in lense making, discovered four of Jupiter’s Moons and their changing positions around Jupiter, realized they were orbiting the planet, realized the moon was covered with craters and imperfections, argument the moon was made out of the same matter as the earth, also found sunspots ● Creating a demand for more and better telescopes ■ Microscope with ability to see things invisible to the naked eye Laven Hooke's microscope ● Fly ● Algae and duckweed ■ Clock - accurate clocks needed for timing scientific observations, helping with longitude calculation and map making ■ Swiss clocker made first clock that could count to seconds, but was very difficult to replicate ● Took another century for really reliable second hands ■ Guns and artillery ○ Still a rejection of movement away from aristotelian thought ■ Had been used to explain certain church doctrines so churches didn’t want it to be moved away ■ Especially real presence of God in the consecrated host ■ Galileo was almost burned as a heretic ■ Some areas more accepting of others ■ Absolute monarchy in France sponsored scientific research ■ Jesuits also played leading role of scientific advances - within accepted boundaries of church doctrine ○ Informal or formal association of scientists coming together to share their methods of discoveries ■ Patronage of wealthy sponsors ■ Royal or govt support on behalf of European states ■ Accademia dei Lincei one of the first societies formed, included Galileo ● Folded in 1650 when founder died and money went away ■ Jean Baptiste Colbert founded the Academie de Sciences ■ Funneled money into scientific activities, spreaded ideas ■ Encouraged scientists to share ideas and collaborate ■ Constant competition and criticism ○ Synergistic relationship between science and technology ○ Protestant v catholic europe ○ Science as a social enterprise The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of the Enlightenment ● Newton was so revered he came through in art and was brought in front of common people ● Lecture tours and magazines ● Ladies diary popularized science and math ● Broad dissemination of science ideas in England ● Late 17th and early 18th centuries European intellectuals took scientific practices and began to apply them to other areas of human activity ● The enlightenment was a social and cultural movement that called for use of reason to challenge received ideas and authorities ● European thinkers turned to science to do the above ● The term enlightenment was inspired by Newton’s science ● Intellectual underpinnings of enlightenment shaped by scientific revolution ● Political philosophers were trying to define the laws that governed human societies ○ Figured there were fundamental natural and social la
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