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Lecture 23

HIST 1093 Lecture 23: L23 Imperial Reforms and the Englightenment

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HIST 1093
Jane E Regan

The Bourbon Reforms in the Spanish Empire and the Great Andean Rebellion ● Spain had declined, but still had colonies and silver mines ● By the 18th century corruption was rampant in the leadership ● Spanish hired subcontractors to collect the taxes ○ Opportunities for dishonesty ○ Sale of positions in the government and the church ○ Collusion of local officials ● Bourbon Reforms ○ Broke up viceroyalty of Peru into New grenada, colombia and venezuela ○ Brought influence of Spanish government closer to a lot of people ○ Appointed professional spanish administrators to ensure they were qualified ■ Bringing in officials from Spain meant they had no connections or interests they could serve with corruption ○ Loosened some restrictions on trade to reduce smuggling ■ Spanish colonies not allowed to trade directly with each other had to send it back to spain first -Seville ■ Still not allowed to trade with other European states, but less restricted during the empire ○ Tried to enhance efficiency of silver mining ○ Invested in creation of a postal system ■ Took six months to send a letter and get a reply ○ Expelled Jesuit order ■ Felt it was too powerful and a threat to Spanish power ● Impact of reforms ○ Increased taxes ○ Colonial elites wanted their power back ● Great Andean Rebellion ○ Armed uprising through Peru, Bolivia and somewhere else ○ Tupac Amaru II was the leader ○ Tried to change the demands on his town ○ Petitioned local Spanish officials from exemption of labor service -labor tributes was no longer allowed, but Tupac was ignored ○ Protested rising taxes ○ Planned a rebellion ■ Nov 4 1780 -birthday of king of Spain ■ Arrested and executed local Spanish official ■ Spread quickly across races ■ Gathered an army of 1100 people, drew on history to justify actions ■ He and his wife dressed like Inca empires, called for Inca’s respiration ■ Proclaimed freedom of all slaves in Peru ■ Spanish government sends army and captures and executes tupac and his wife ■ Resentment of Bourbon reforms sent Latin America on it’s course for independence after a few more decades Jeffery Amherst’s Attempted Trade Reform and Pontiac’s War ● Trying to control costs and define relationships ● Reform acts came after the fighting ended in the 7 years war ● Appointed Jeffery Amherst as governor general ● Alienated indigenous people in reforms ● Amherst didn’t know anything about indigenous culture or really trade and alliance ● Pure ignorance or willful refusal to understand a world view he decided to reform the system to cut costs ● Hoped reforms would encourage indigenous people to work harder for their trade goods ○ Refused to provide diplomatic gifts ○ Restricted volume and types of European consumer goods ● Set off major coordinated indigenous uprising; Pontiac’s War ○ Fundamentally destabilized indigenous politics ○ Chiefs lost influence because they didn’t have the european goods ○ People opposing the British gained power ● New ideological developments from indigenous prophets, taught that God was the master of life, but created indigenous people and Europeans to live separately ○ Said they should reject European goods and weapons ○ Should use weapons to fight Europeans ○ Unified indigenous resistance created ● Pontiac attacks and takes fort detroit ○ Uprising spreads into Northern michigan and to british for Niagara ○ Attacked any unprotected settlers they could find ○ British massacred indigenous people wherever they could find them even if they weren’t involved, tried to send them smallpox as well ○ Fighting continued until 1764 ○ British negotiated peace with Pontiac ● Pontiac’s war limited success ○ Brought grievances to British attention ○ Jeffery Amherst brought back to England ○ Issued Pr
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