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History of Islam Study Guide.docx

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Boston College
HIST 4150
Joseph Burdo

History of Islam Study Guide Defining Civilizations- Huntington- Broadest level of Identity defines a civilization (religion, borders, ect). Predicted Civilizations would clash Hodgson- “rethinking world history”; gives a world history without a world view, draws connections between events. Civilization=city; There are areas of growth in certain places and diffusion of these centers is what civilization is. Cultural and Intellectual Dynamics of the Islamic World- The Islamic world began in arid desert regions and as such, that defines a good chunck of their culture (minimalists who prize camels). Being in the desert region they had little need for education, they were a nomadic group so in the pre-ilamic era, few were literate and an official accentedArabic language did not come about for a while. Religion and Kinship among the Byzantines and Persians- In the preIslamic era the two superpower enemies were the Byzantine Romans and the Sausanian Persians. The dominant religion in the Byzantine sector was Christianity while the dominant religion of Persia was Zoroastrianism. Hellanistic period (a time of cultural exchange) The Life and Mission of the Prophet Muhammad- Muhammad was an orphan, taken in by his uncle, a prominent leader of the Quraysh in Mecca. He grew up in Mecca and at 40 had his first revelation of God, telling him he was to be a prophet. His beginning career in Mecca was a short one: Mecca at the time was a place where all the Bedouin tribes could come in peace and pray to their own Gods. Now they had Muhammad preaching to them monotheism which disgruntled the Quraysh some. In the Meccan period, the Quran preached social and economic critiques, stating that if people had the means, they should share it with others. This gained him supporters mostly in the lower, non-Quraysh classes. The Quraysh didn’t like this so they started to attack Muhammad’s followers (Muhammad was protected byAbu Bakar andAli. Muhammad and his followers’fled to Medina in 622 in what is known as the hidjra. The second phase of Muhammad’s life he served as judge in Medina. Medinan Quran about law and how an Islamic community should be set up and run. Here you also have the “Constitution of Medina which describes that the three main groups in Medina (the helpers (Ansar), Muhammad’s followers/the Emigrants (Muhajirun), and the Jews would, if a conflict was within their clans, settle it by themselves but if the conflict was between two clans, Muhammad would serve as judge. There was also a pact of protection within this agreement as well. Then you have the Meccan and Medinan War where the two cites fought each other. A Jewish tribe in Medina betrayed Medina however, Muhammad ended up winning through religious trickery. Muhammad died in 632. The Stakes in the Succession Crisis at Muhammad’s Death- 1.) Muhajirun- “new nobility”; the emigrants and first Mulims likeAbu Bakar,Ali, and A’isha a. Umayyad- “old nobility”; came from members of the Quraysh; people like Uthman b. Proto-Shia (Pre-Shiites;Ali, Fatima, etc.) 2.) Ansar- the helpers and the people who controlled Medina before Muhammad (Wanted to re-split Mecca and Medina with separate rulers) 3.) Bedouins- migrants who joined up with Muhammad since he went to Medina; They helped Muhammad win the war The importance of Hadith, methods of Critisism, and theAkhbar for Historical Traditions- Isnad; Hadith used to determine sharia and Sira. Akhbar= reports (Volumes of History) based on Hadith Example is Tabari The tension betweenArab Tribalism and Islamic Universalism- Islamic Universalism- The desire for allArabs to unite and work together to form one Islamic state. This concept has been around since Muhammad’s time when he took the idea of the tribe and applied it to Muslims who weren’t necessarily blood related. Arab Tribalism, you defend/protect/look out for only your own blood relations or marital relations. Accomplishments under Rashidun-The Rightly Guided Caliphs- 1.) Abu Bakar- Wars ofApostacy- keeping Islam alive and together; no more prophets 2.) Umar-Simple and Pious;Achieved the most through the conquests (not for conversion but for Islam as a political ruling); Conquered lots; Pact of Umar- pact of protection with conquered peoples; non-Muslims (Dhimmi) had to pay the jizya which boosted economy). Also creates the SHURA(council of elders) 3.) Uthman- placed relative in high places of power to set up for the revolution, had a written Quran established, was assassinated b/c of economy problems and not paying soldiers the jizya 4) ‘Ali- Last of the Rightly guided; restored order through diplomacy but then is killed bst his own (disbanded) followers for “sinning” (giving in to Mu’awiya); Rules during the 1 fitna (civil war) ^^looses to Mu’awyia) The Stakes of the First Fitna- 1. Ali-Caliph at the time; Hashim Clan followers believed he should have been Caliph from the start 2. A’isha (Faction subdued quickly)- upset about the unjust wayAli was chosen by half the Shura; had her own candidates for Caliph 3. Muawiya- (and the Umayyad) came from the East; high power in Damascus; wanted to be Caliph: (At the indesisive battle, Arbitration of Siffin, He andAli decided to split the empire and he would get it all whenAli died-Ali was killed by his own followers (Kharijis) for doing this so Mu’awiya got it all) Dynamics of the Conquests- The Conquests were not to convert people, they were to establish Islamic power and rule. The conquered non-muslims were called Dhimmi and had to pay a jizya tax unless they converted. Conquered peoples were expected to adapt Arab lifestyles although, aspects of Roman and Persian lifestyle often crept in. Pirenne Thesis- Germanic Tribes vs.Arab Tribes: Germanic conquests resulted in Germanic tribes adopting the conquered peoples culture whereas the Muslim conquests did not. The Muslim conquests were the true beginning of the Dark ages because once half the Mediterranean was conquered; it disrupted the economic and cultural unity that had been established there. (i.e. Europe returned to farming culture, trade decreases, and roman luxuries disappear) Umayyad Policies and Critiq
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