Bush v. Vera (1996)
• Vera: white citizen in a black district: voting rights put minorities back into voting or the
states faced huge punishments due to voting rights act.
• States makes minority majority districts using gerrymandering. It’s a win win for states
who get a majority of counties that are white and the minorities get state public state
officials in their districts.
• Vera argued his vote didn’t count as much because he lived in a minority district. The
state argued that it wasn’t their intention to devalue votes (lies) and there was nothing the
Court could do about it, they were following the voting rights act.
• Using strict scrutiny the Court said that the gerrymandering had a racial intent and
therefore is not allowed.
Bush v. Gore (2000):
• The Court said that the electoral decision can only applied to this case (tip off that
something is wrong)
Prior to 2008: meant there was a collective right that existed to bear arms.
After 2008: the Court said it is not a collective rig