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Lecture 3

NURS 2070 Lecture 3: health assessment #3

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NURS 2070
Robin Wood

Class #4 - MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM • Flexion: bending a limb at a joint • Extension: straightening a limb at a joint • Myalgia: felt as cramping or aching aka pain in the joints • TMJ: temporomandibular joint • ROM: range of motion • ADL: daily functions of living (e.g toileting, showering, eating, ) • Functional Assessment: • Opposition:can touch thumb to each finger • Atrophy: decrease in size, wasting of a body part or tissue • Hypertrophy: excessive development of an organ or tissue • Abduction: to draw away from the body • Adduction: to draw towards the body • Kyphosis: excessive outward curvature of spine (hunched back) o elders are at risk for this (e.g think of ya grandma) • Lordosis: excessive inward curvature of the spine o pregnant women are at risk for this (e.g. think of Doreen) • Scoliosis: S-shaped curvature of the spinal column • Crepitus: grating, crackling, or popping sounds and sensations experienced under the skin PAIN ASSESSMENT • Visceral pain: pain that originates from an interior organ such as the gall bladder • Deep somatic pain: pain that comes from the blood vessels, joints, or tendons • Cutaneous: pain that comes from the skin surface or subcutaneous structures • Referred pain: pain felt at a particular site but originates from a different site • Acute pain: short-term pain; stops after injury heals • Chronic pain: long-term pain; continues for 6 months or longer after initial injury • Nociceptive pain: process where unpleasant stimuli is felt; CNS and PNS are intact • Neuropathic pain: abnormal processing of pain message; burning, painful sensation o For example, pain that randomly comes back after an accident two years ago • Pain Scales: o Numeric rating scale: (0-10) rates no pain to the worst pain ever o Descriptor scale: list words that describes the level of pain intensity o FACES scale (Wong-Baker): six drawings of facial expressions that show pain intensity ▪ Good scale for children o CRIES scale (neonates): scale used for people who can’t communicate ▪ Good scale for infants Key things to know about pain: • The most reliable indicator of pain is the patient’s self-report • Preterm infant is more sensitive to painful stimulus • Pain in the aging adult is considered to be unrelated to the aging process • A common physiologic change that occurs with pain is tachycardia Class #5 - NUTRITION-METABOLIC PATTERN •
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