The Cosmological Argument
Thomas Aquinas: 12251274
From Summa Theologica
5 Ways = 5 arguments to show that God exists
Structure of Cosmological Arguments:
Observe the facts of causation/change/motion of the universe
Conclude that there must be a first cause/changer/mover
That first cause is GOD
Cosmological arguments rely on:
The Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR):
There must be an explanation for
(a) Everything that exists or ever did exist
(b) Every positive fact
There are three possible ways that a thing could be explained:
Explained by itself
Explained by another
Explained by nothing
For Aquinas, it is inconceivable that something could come from nothing.
(1) Everything requires an explanation or cause. (PSR) (2) Things can be explained/caused by themselves, or by other things.
(3) Most things are explained/caused by other things.
(4) But, the series of causes/explanations cannot be infinite.
An infinite series would violate (PSR)
Each item in the infinite series has an explanation.
But, you also need an explanation for the series itself.
You need an explanation for the following fact: “There exists an infinite chain of causes.”
(5) Therefore, there must be a first selfcaused case, a first selfexplained explainer.
(6) That first cause/explanation is God.
Problems with the Argument
(1) The argument depends on PSR.
PSR = There must be an explanation for
(a) everything that exists, and
(b) every positive fa