Analogical Argument from Design:
1. Man made machines are the product or intelligent design.
Watches, computers, airplanes
2. Many natural parts of the universe resemble machines.
Parts working together in complex ways to perform a function.
3. Like effects have like causes.
4. Therefore, the universe (or at least many of its natural parts) is probably the product of intelligent design.
5. If (4), then the universe was probably designed by God.
6. Therefore, the universe was probably designed by God.
Hume’s Critique of the Design Argument: (2 stages)
1. Object to (2) – Weak analogy
In precisely what way do machines and the universe resemble each other?
Which elements of resemblance matter?
If the analogy is weak, (13) don’t support (4)
2. Object to (5)
If like effects have like causes, you can’t single out aspects of the cause which are the same and ignore
Cause of machines // cause of universe
Not unique (i.e. more than one)
If the argument proves a creator, it doesn’t prove God
If the analogy is strong, (5) is false and (6) doesn’t follow. Hume’s Critique of the Design Argument
Hume’s two objections take the form of a dilemma for the defender of the design argument:
Either the analogy is weak and the argument fails at (4)
Or the analogy is strong and the argument fails at (6)
The better the analogy, the weaker the argument!
Object to the principle that like effects have like causes (P3)
Like effects don’t always have like causes
E.g. Real diamonds and fake diamonds
Abductive Argument from Design:
(1) The universe exhibits intricate order and apparen