The Principles of Kantian Ethics:
Act only in accordance with a maxim that you could will to become a universal law.
Follow rules that you could wish EVERYONE to follow.
Principle of Humanity
Act in such a way as to treat humanity always as an end and never merely as a means.
Respect others as sources of value.
Two components of the Principle of Humanity:
Duty of Justice
NEVER act on a maxim that uses others as a mere means.
NEVER exploit, deceive or coerce others.
Perfect duty = An absolute requirement; no exceptions
Duty of Beneficence
Act on SOME maxims that foster others’ ends.
Treating others as ends involves helping them achieve their ends.
But, we can’t seek everything that others want – we can be selective.
Imperfect duty = A duty that involves leeway and choices.
No exceptions; must always be observed
E.g. Duty not to lie, duty not to kill innocent persons, duty to keep promises
Duties of justice ▯ what is right
Must be observed on some occasions, at our dis