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Philosophy 4-23.docx

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School
Boston College
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1070
Professor
Robert Mc Gill
Semester
Spring

Description
Philosophy 04/23/2014 Plato’s   epublic   Book 5   Only if Philosophers BECOME KINGS (or vice versa) will the perfect regime ever be realized. Philosophers = Lovers of wisdom                       Genuine moral experts They have an understanding of THE GOOD The highest object of understanding Philosophers have genuine knowledge = knowledge of the forms Knowledge = involves what is                     (THE GOOD) Opinion = is etween  what IS and is NOT                (Facts, the many good and beautiful things) Ignorance = involves what is t                   (Mere shadows/images of good, beautiful things) The relation of the good itself to other things is symbolized in three analogies The Sun The Cave The Divided Line Sun = The Good That by which other things are seen/understood; that which makes other things knowable The ideal State will be ruled by Philosopher Kings Legitimate rulers must have knowledge of  the good They must know how to maintain justice (& happiness) Philosophers have genuine and infallible knowledge of the forms of the true, the good, the  beautiful, the just Philosopher Kings will    lways   do what is best for the city   Virtue is knowledge It is not possible for an individual to have genuine knowledge of virtue and fail to be virtuous in practice Education and tests for rulers filter out those with genuine knowledge of THE GOOD If the educational/filter system is working properly, only those with genuine knowledge of the good will  become philosopher kings Allegory of the cave represents the philosopher’s ascent to understanding, and descent back to  rule. Once in power, what should the Philosopher King do? What are the responsibilities of political society? Primary responsibility of political society is to educate its citizens The ideal polis would educate everyone vs. Education as a personal, familial responsibility All people (including women) would receive Primary, general education until the age of 18 Plus two years of military training Select few show intellectual skill
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