Plato (427347 B.C.)
Began as student of Socrates
Early dialogues – Socratic
Describe thoughts of Socrates
Aporetic = end in confusion
Later works – Platonic
Socrates is mouthpiece for Plato
Offer positive views
Founder of The Academy in Athens
First organized school in Athens
What is Justice?
What is it for a human being to be just?
What is it for a society or political structure to be just?
What is thebest type of society for man?
What type of society will helplive well?
What is Justice?
Thrasymachus’ Position: Might makes right
“Justice is simply the interest of the stronger”
Government CANNOT act wrongly, so long as it promotes its own interests
Laws of a regime are always just (so its citizens are always obligated to obey them)
It Might makes Right:
Whoever actually wields political power rightly wields power
There is no difference between actual and legit authority
Whoever does in fact rule ahs the moral authority to rule
Is there more to legitimacy than power?
Trace the origin and development of the State
See how political society develops and grows
See how justice (or injustice) grows within it
Origin and Development of the State
Cities develop because individuals are not selfsufficient
Individuals have essential needs (food, shelter, clothing)
The best way for a group to provide for those needs is by a division of labor according to natural
Some will be farmers, other shoemakers, others blacksmiths, etc. Labor must be divided because it’s impossible for one person to do each of these jobs for himself
Growth of the Polis Leads to Conflict
Further professions will arise to provide LUXURIES
Hunters, poets, dancers, craftsmen, teachers, barbers
Society grows, needs more land for growing food
Leads to conflict with neighboring cities to acquire resources, including land
The Appearance of Gua