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Philosophy 4-14.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1070
Professor
Robert Mc Gill
Semester
Spring

Description
Philosophy 04/14/2014 Plato (427­347 B.C.) Began as student of Socrates Early dialogues – Socratic Describe thoughts of Socrates Aporetic  = end in confusion Later works – Platonic Socrates is mouthpiece for Plato Offer positive views Founder of The Academy in Athens First organized school in Athens Guiding Question: What is Justice? What is it for a human being to be just? What is it for a society or political structure to be just? What is thebest type of society  for man? What type of society will helplive well? What is Justice? Thrasymachus’ Position: Might makes right “Justice is simply the interest of the stronger” Government CANNOT act wrongly, so long as it promotes its own interests Laws of a regime are always just (so its citizens are always obligated to obey them) It Might makes Right: Whoever actually wields political power rightly wields power There is no difference between actual and legit authority Whoever does in fact rule ahs the moral authority to rule Socrates Wonders: Is there more to legitimacy than power? Investigative Strategy: Trace the origin and development of the State See how political society develops and grows See how justice (or injustice) grows within it Origin and Development of the State Cities develop because individuals are not self­sufficient Individuals have essential needs  (food, shelter, clothing) The best way for a group to provide for those needs is by a division of labor according to natural  talents Some will be farmers, other shoemakers, others blacksmiths, etc. Labor must be divided because it’s impossible for one person to do each of these jobs for himself Growth of the Polis Leads to Conflict Further professions will arise to provide LUXURIES Hunters, poets, dancers, craftsmen, teachers, barbers Society grows, needs more land for growing food Leads to conflict with neighboring cities to acquire resources, including land The Appearance of Gua
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