Martin Luther King Jr:
Natural justice vs Man Made Justice:
Natural justice is determined by God and God’s governing principles toward human
beings. Natural justice is morality oriented and aims to treat human beings fairly and
ethically. Man made justice is established by laws created by social institutions, which
may or may not coincide with the moral laws and law of God. How does one determine
whether a law is just or unjust?
An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms
of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and
natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human
personality is unjust.
Critique of the idea of the state:
Undermined the importance of liberal democracy by stating that the state’s goal is not to
consent to the people but rather bring true morality and freedom by limiting the people’s
vices, and such are limitations of the “caprice”, in other words minor things that do not
interfere with true freedom.
Critique of Hegel: his ideas are too abstract
indefensible, no real evidence for proof.
Prejudice: asserts Christian/western superiority by excluding the
countries with histories that “do not contribute to the idea/development
Too narrow minded: has reduced the whole process of history to the
relation between the rest of the world and itself (the rest of the world,
in contrast to itself, falling under the category of “the masses”) and
dissolved all dogmatic antitheses into the single dogmatic antithesis of
State v. Society:
Hegel is careful to point out that this idea of the State as true freedom (freedom in
Reason) is not the same as the "social contract" model of the state, in which individual
freedom is limited in order to allow others equal freedom. The freedoms limited by the
State, Hegel argues, are nothing more than "caprice," simply the careless whims of the
subjective will. The State allows the "only genuine ethical life," because genuine ethics
only come from freedom in Reason (rational freedom).
The State only limits the crudest of human drives, "caprice and [animal] passion." The
initial limiting of these drives, in fact, is part of the process by which humans become
aware of rational freedom (with its universal essences of law) in the first place.
If the state is confused with civil society, and if its specific end is laid down as the
security and protection of property and personal freedom, then the interest of the
individuals as such becomes the ultimate end of their association, and it follows that
membership of the state is something optional. But the state’s relation to the individual is
quite different from this. Since the state is mind objectified, it is only as one of its
members that the individual himself has objectivity, genuine individuality, and an ethical life. Unification pure and simple is the true content and aim of the individual, and the
individual’s destiny is the living of a universal life.
How do Kierkegaard and Nietzche compare to each other
Emphasizes on traditional breaks off from the
morality & religion traditional philosophical
Talks a lot in terms of framework.
metaphyscis Religion is outdated,
God happens to be the cannot depend on God
greatest thing e▯ xpects the for your happiness, but
greatest resignation from you have to make
us everything happen for
Emphasis on morality yourself.
Does not value reason to Moral is a matter of
an overwhelming degree, subjective view, it is a
faith has nothing to do prejudice, instead of
with reason, because morality, Nietzsche
reason only takes you so emphasizes on will to
far in relation to God. power.
We should not be bound Also does not care for
by goals, but place more compassion in terms of
value on the process in traditional ethical
which you go through. vocabulary
Resign to what you cannot Reason is important,
control, but being aware of part of what gives us
your feelings and response power.
to it, by doing this you are Goal is important ▯
being true a