• “The creation and the fall” why we need a covenant and why we cant keep it
• know obedience just because someone say something as essay.
• Patriarchal period (2100-1800?)
o Abraham (Sarah)
o Isaac (Rebekah)
o Jacob (Rachel)
Abraham and Isaac
Abrahams silence is problematic. Why does he not intercede?
Abraham intercedes with Sodom and Gamorrah. Similar to Moses bc he can intercede
One attempt to elevate one commandment over the other (love and obey God or shall not
Is IsaacAbraham’s to begin with or is he ultimately God’s?
Abrahams obedience is rooted in a “faith” that is beyond reasons capacity and therefore it is
absurd which is what makes it meaningful
-Soren Kierkegaard “The melancholy Dame”
Knight of Infinite Fate “his faith by virtue of the absurd …for human calculation is out of the
Knight of Infinite Resignation “Such a thing is to high for him… he cannot get it into his
head… it seems to him, to blurt it straight out… foolishness.”
Job is like two statues arguing from Glaucon. Will ppl still be just if you take benefits away.
will ppl still have faith when you take it all away.
The Problem of Pain/Suffering/Evil
Job was innocent, god is harsher on friends but tells Job not to question Him.
The empirical problem: gratuitous evils befall totally good, just ppl. This is not some
illusion; it’s real pain and suffering.
The engaging question about the empirical problem: “So why do we suffer and, worse,
why do we not know why we suffer?”
If our suffering was intelligible it might thereby be endurable or justifiable
But instead pain/suffering see, capricious
The logic of Problem of Pain/Suffering
Judeo-Christian Premise #1: God is Good
Judeo Christian Premise #2: God isAll-Powerful
Corollary of Premise #1: Good creators keep their creatures secure and happy, otherwise they’re
not good creators
Corollary #2: Beings that are all powerful can do anything, the least of which is ameliorate
The Empirical Data: Human beings are clearly not secure and a great many are not happy
Conclusion: God lacks either goodness, or power, or both; or God does not exist at all The onus is on the theist (believer) therefore, to reconcile what seems to be real contradiction as
merely an apparent on (Remember Melntyre).
The Book of Job
The types of OT books
The Historical Books Joshua to Macabees
The Prophetic Books Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea
The Poetical and Wisdom Literature Psalms (poetic) and song of Solomon (poetic) Job,
Wisdom lit describes works that do not focus on the notion of Israel on its great formative
historical memories such as exodus and conquest and on covenants as central theo notion
The focus of wisdom is on universal concerns, esp universal individual experiences and
the maintenance of relationships that lead to success and divine approval.
The central question is not innocent suffering but the question posed by “the adversary” Satan:
Will individuals continue to be religious apart from rewards and punishment? (glaucon and
switching of wages)
• The Structure
o Prologue (god says don’t kill him)
o The Conversation Cycle
Ephliphaz, Job, Bildad, Job, Zophar, Job
Interlude on Wisdom
Elihu’s Intercession (addition to text makes some good argument against
Job. Right that Job was righteous but his knowledge is imperfect)
God’s response (meaningful? You don’t know anything.)
• Epilogue job comes out better then he did through all of this. X2 property. Good comes
out of evil.At the end of the day hes better for it. (Augustinean)
The Prophets and Prophecy
After the prosperity the state of Isreal enjoyed under he leadership of David and
Solomon, the 12 Tribes of Israel divided into two irrevocably separate Kingdoms of
Israel: cap Samaria (North 10 tribes) and (South 2 tribes) Kingdom of Judah: cap
The four Periods of Prophecy mirrors this
o Early Monarchy(11 – 9 Century) prophets concerned with “king making and
king breaking” announce God has indicated a person to become King or rejected a
o Assyrian Crisis (21)Amos and Hosea et al; concerned with critiquing complacent
religious practices and condemning abuses of social justice as a result of growing
central state power. o Babylonian Crisis (586) Jeremiah and Ezekiel et al; a divided community itself
concerns over which political course to follow and the related religious choices.
Isreal is favored by God but only as each person is favored by god. (City/soul?)
o Post-Exile (5 and 6 Century) “The Second Isaiah” (anonymous); concerned
with restoration of the community and its institutions and encouragement for
exiles to return and rebuild the temple.
Amos and Hosea: Both books idea of hope and reconciliation.All is not lost.Amos gives
example of Sieve at the end. But God looks over all the places its just worse on Israel and Judah
bc they are the chosen people. Both useAssyrian crisis is actually the will of God in disguise.
Based on length the prophets are divided into Major (Isaiah, Ezekiel and Jeremiah,
Lamentations, and Daniel) and Minor Book of 12 (Hosea – Malachi) symbolize 12 tribes
The purpose of the prophet: chosen by god to receive and deliver message of Gods will.
Not unlike Socrates understanding of the role of the philosopher guardian with one
difference, the prophets have the authority of God behind them while the guardians have
their knowledge of the Good.
The prophecies ofAmos and Hosea were both directed at Northern Kingdom and
probably brought to Southern Kingdom after the fall of the North in 721
Socrates is gadfly attached to (horse) state to stir it.
Religious positivity stick to these commandments and follow them without straying.
Robotic rule following. (?)
The Book ofAmos (760)
Amos was contemporeous with Hosea althoughAmos probably proceeded Hosea.
ChronologicallyAmos inaugurated the era of classical prophecy even though Hosea
stands first in the book of 12
o Chapter 1-2 a single speech, an ethical tour of the region from the divine
perspective, which eliminates in the indictment of Israel itself.
o Chapter 3-6 the most variegated section forming a collection of short prophetic
sayings indicting Israel for sin and injustice (particularly a cry for justice for the
o Chapters (7-9) the visions ofAmos represented by 5 vivid images as well of
Amaziah narrative and final speech of comfort addressed not to Israel but to
The Book of Hosea
Chapters 1-3: the central metaphor of marriage, infidelity and reconciliation
Chapters 4-11: Similar to Amos legal indictments for breech of covenant with God
culminating in the 4 metaphors
Chapters 12-14: like in Amos, images of restoration
The Metaphor: Hosea deals with Gomer as the Lord deals with Israel. Gomer is
promiscuous woman (wife of whoredom).After a period of marital separation, Hosea takes her back. In a similar way, Israel, the Lord’s unfaithful wife, will be separated from
her husband and home but the Lord will restore/ take her back.
The severity of Hosea’s critique is ultimately juxtaposed against language of divine
longing and compassion. The hope is exile will represent a new wilderness in which
harmonious state with God will be restored.
Christ fulfill old Law?
The gospels: “good news/tidings”
• Four Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke [synoptic can be read as one sort of view. Similar
story] and John)
o John has hostility towards Jewish community for failing to recognize Christ as
Messiah and killing him
• Christ in relation to the life of Christian Faith: personal relation (body or the cloak)
• Christ in relation to Judaism: does he fulfill/practice the Mosaic law or radically
change/reinvent/abolish it. *** he constantly accuses Pharisees and such as hypocrites.
Stops the people from simply checking the box. Dichotomy between legal letter of the
law to spirit of the law. Changes motivation, you need to have good will. You can do
something that’s ethical but for the wrong reasons (to be seen). He tells them to pray and
fast in secret.
• Christ in relation to Pagan ethics: how does he compare to the “Code of Hammurabi” or
Aristotle’s “great souled man?”
NT Wright: Cloak v Body
Radically change ways Christians think of “on earth as it is in Heaven. You must act on
earth as if it is heaven. Do not just live for heaven.
Empty cloak outer wrappings of death birth and resurrection
But what does Jesus do in between?
But gospels have what Jesus achieved in his saving death (atonement) and how this could
be achievement can be appropriated by the individual (justification by faith).Atonement and
Justification are at heart of the Bible “the gospel”. but “gospels” MMLJ appear to have almost
nothing to say on the subject.
All cloak no body All body no cloak
Just have faith. Accept claims of creed need to focus on the gospels. Don’t accept
what Christians are supposed to accept
Don’t necessarily believe story but believe
message of ethical teachings
**Can you synthesize these?**
The Gospel according to Matthew
• Begins with est Jesus as direct descendant ofAbraham and David
• Focus on lineage is immediate contradiction of creedal assumption of a virgin bi