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Why the French Don't Like headscarves notes

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Political Science
POLI 1042
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Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves By: John R. Bowen • Turning from what happened to colonized to what happened to colonizers because of colonizing o How westerners respond to increased immigrant population • French version of secularism o New version called laicite  Unwritten culture in France dealing with public affairs. A more aggressive form of secularism. • 3 main blocks: Islam, women, France • How marriage is supposed to be defined o New way: role of woman in fundamental ceremony, based on mutual affection as opposed to contracts o Veiled Muslim woman is symbol of older standpoint • France = birthplace of modern enlightenment o Regards secularism as key to its identity  Montesquieu = emblem of European core of secularism • Secularism in its two forms: US vs. France o Rousseau = philosopher, state of nature  social contract, state of nature was the pure state of man (France)  Promotes notion of state regarded as inheritance of French secularism o John Locke (USA) o USA emphasizes diversity and multi-culteralism  France emphasizes unity – the creation of the French man and woman • USA = individual freedom from the state • France = individual freedom through the state • Is liberalism the toleration of different ways of life or the promotion of one way of life? o Laicite is equivalent to the Golden Age of Islam • France resembles pre-modern understanding of politics to further life • Great laboratory for creation of French citizen = school system o “religion” vs “culte”  Culte = manifestation of religion (public)  Religion = private matter, inner manifestation with God • Islam = problematic because has both private and public facets o Can’t simply remain a belief  Any outward expression of religious symbols shouldn’t be allowed • Have to be boundaries for people to express “cultish” ways • Law of 1905 promoted that the state doesn’t recognize any religion • Jules Ferry = promoter of secularism • 1901 = permitted citizens to form voluntary associations • 1905 = turns religion from public to private • 1959 = Debre law and allowed school to retain character o Debre law allowed Catholic schools to receive state funds if they taught the national curriculum • What is meant in France by “public space?” o Open, part of the community, public good, neutral  Create a communal dialogue o Sacred space not to be trifled with • USA and multiculturalism is seen as bad o Takes away from identity as Americans and as nation • French colonization was fueled by want to establish “French Islam” o Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco  Algeria is not like the others because it was a colony, not a protectorate • Ruled by the minister of Interior rather than Minister of Foreign Affairs • Mosque in Paris = make France seem like a great Muslim power o Came back to bite them • Mosque in Bobigny o Cemetery designe
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