# POLI1042 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Peer Pressure

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6 Feb 2017
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Developing Hypotheses!
independent and dependent variables!
coming up with an idea in the ﬁrst place!
!
causal theory!
try to explain Y in terms of the factors that cause it (X)!
how do we get from X to Y!
ﬁnding correlations is not a theory, could be entirely coincidental!
could be a slight comparison but it might not necessarily be the cause of it!
trying to develop the basic idea!
the reason for why two things are connected!
don't be discouraged with an idea that doesn't pan out originally!
!
in the sciences, people devise ideas that don't pan out!
!
!
Problem Set!
Students sit in the back to minimize eort!
assume this is true!
if minimizing eort is true, people would start sitting closest to the door!
seating pattern would go from closest to the door and branch outwards from there!
class times, minimizing eort to get up for a 9 am,!
easier times would ﬁll up ﬁrst and the 9 am would be last!
see what students wear, eort put in!
chose dorms that are closest to the classes!
to what extent is this important to the behavior that is exhibited!
ﬂesh out the idea, see other implications based on this particular observation!
if we see these as true, it is important to the model!
!
Student norms!
people don't want to be see paying attention!
they wouldn't want to be seen studying in public, wouldn't go to the library !
socializing in the library !
if students want to do well but ﬁt in, their behavior would be somewhat dierent!
peer pressure plays an important role!
people who are more peer pressured might be more connected!
people in the front aren't quite as connected as the people in the back !
if the norms are important, some might be more susceptible to them than others!
people in the front are violating student norms!
freshman might not know the student norms, might violate them unknowingly !
seniors might ﬁnd it less important to ﬁt in!
!
think about the implications of an idea!
some people are more likely to do something than to not!
who is likely to be more susceptible to those student norms!
!
these represent 2 theories which are used to describe behavior!
people minimize eort to respond to incentives, seating pattern would be expected to change
if the door was in the front!
student norms refer more to a kind of culture!
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