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Lecture 1

POLI 2403 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Kyoto Protocol, Study Guide, Texas State Highway Loop 1

Political Science
Course Code
POLI 2403

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Fragmentation and Reform
Study guide online in next couple days- will go over this on Thursday
High number of treaties written and enforced concerning different issues- not always
Fragmentation is value neutral- can be negative or positive
oCountries interested in specific area who come together to make agreements that are
more substantively deep than a broad agreement by everyone- increased specificity and
agreement is a good thing
oOften easier to achieve agreement with smaller group of like-minded countries on
smaller topic areas
oMultiple agreements create overlap, which makes coordination of IGOs more difficult
and can create competition
UNFCCC (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change)
oKyoto Protocol
oParis Agreement
oNested regime- institution itself, plus intstitutions within it
oLinked regime with IPCC- sends guidance, etc.
Sector specific approaches- whole series of regimes
oMontreal Protocol under Ozone Convention- repurposd regime (very narrow subject)
Reasons for Regime overlap and fragmentation
oDiscussion of one topic leads to discussion of another, creating spill over
oSome agreements are only meant as starting points, intended to provide structure for
further negotiations
oSometimes additional agreements are negotiated as failsafes
Types of Regimes
Nested regimes: Regimes that exist within regimes; institutions embedded within each other
(like Russian dolls)
Parallel regimes: regimes where there are no no formal or direct substantive overlap, but
sometimes crossover when deliberate linkages are made
oEx: trade and climate change regimes
Overlapping regimes: multiple institutions that have authority over the same issue, but the
agreements are not necessarily mutually exclusive or subsidiary to each other
Pros of Fragmentation
Faster agreement
Fail safes
Easier to establish
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