Cosmetic surgery: An operation or procedure that changed your appearance
Q: In what ways have you modified your body? (Braces, shaving, waxing, ear piercing,
makeup exercise, hair color, manicures, etc.)
Chapter 13: Designing Women (Gagne and McGaughey)
What social factors do they suggest as important in influencing the women they
interviewed to elect to undergo cosmetic surgeries?
An ageist society: Wanting to stay younglooking, having youthful sexual
vitality may give greater career opportunities
May please people in your life (friends, spouses, family, etc.)
Gives the woman selfconfidence
May affect their economic livelihood (again, greater professional success)
How are the decisions these women made impacted by their race and/or ethnicity?
What about socioeconomic status?
White women are most likely to get breast augmentation, Asians tend to get
their eyes Westernized, and African American women get narrower noses. Why?
All tend toward the same beauty norm: the white Western ideal
*There is an idea of bodies as “projects” A way to express yourself Surgery is a lifestyle
change, not a medical operation