1. The Glass Ceiling and the Glass Escalator/Elevator
a. The Glass Ceiling effect is the invisible institutional barrier based on
attitudinal or organization bias, that prevents qualified and deserving
people from advancing upward to top managementlevel positions in their
i. These barriers exist because of prejudice on the basis of sex, age,
political or religious affiliation, weightbased appearance norms, or
potentially devalued attributes or characteristics.
ii. This exists in many occupations and professions.
1. For example, the glass ceiling prevents female surgeons
from attaining full professorships at medical schools
throughout the United States.
b. The upward movement of men in “women’s professions” is called The
Glass Elevator effect.
i. Men struggle to remain in the lower “feminine” levels of their
ii. On an elevator, a person has to do even less to physically “move
2. The Double Shift
a. Women with dual responsibilities as wage earners and unpaid household
workers work “the second shift”.
i. Some refer to this problem as doubleshift stress syndrome.
ii. More and more women are becom