1. Gender Socialization by Parents
a. Parents maintain gender distinctions between boys and girls through
i. Boys are thought to be less fragile than girls.
1. Parents are more likely to play with a boy infant more
vigorously than a girl.
2. Parents are more likely to cuddle infant girls, treat them
gently, and provide them with verbal stimulation.
ii. Boys and girls are distinguished by their clothing.
iii. Their toys distinguish boys and girls.
iv. Chores reinforce gender distinctions.
1. Boys are given maintenance chores.
2. Girls are given domestic chores.
2. Peers and Gender Socialization
a. Peer groups are powerful socializing agents that can enforce gender
i. Boys are encouraged by their peers to engage in proper