African American 27AC Lecture.docx

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University of California - Berkeley
African American Studies
Michael Cohen

The Great Backlash 1. US War in Vietnam 1963-1975 a. It was happening in the international moves every night i. This is the international political backdrop to the Civil Rights Movement ii. Anti-war movement plays into the liberation struggles b. TheAge of Three Worlds: 1945-1991 i. First World is NorthAmerica; Second World is Russia and Communism; Third World isAfrica, LatinAmerica, and Middle EasternAsia 1. There were the places that were colonized by the capitalist first world and the socialist second world ii. Third World: Decolonization from 1947-1997 1. These countries are gaining their independence 2. Vietnam had been a French colony since the 1840s; the Japanese invaded Vietnam and forced France out; France wanted their colony back so they went back to Vietnam and forced the Japanese out, dragging the US into it, to aid France iii.At the end of World War II, over one-third of the world’s population lived in dependent territories.As a result of decolonization, many countries became independent and joined the UN. 1. Cold War in the Third World – the Third World explodes with wars iv. As the new nations are finding their voices, a new generation of organic intellectuals develops. 1. Tricontinental Intellectuals (Political) a. Ho Chi Minh b. Ernesto Guevara c. Malcolm X 2. Cultural a. Bruce Lee b. Ernesto Guevara c. Bob Marley – huge influence for internationalism; used his records because people actually listening to him; this music represents the new liberatedAfrican states i. “There’s a Third World in every First World and vice versa” 3. Kwame Nkrumah: President of Ghana, First Independent Black African Nation a. Maya Angelo, W.E.B Dubois, MuhammadAli, Malcolm X, MLKJ – all went to visit, and this fueled the internationalism of the CRM. v. The white male standard is beginning to end as the center of the geopolitical system 2. Social Movements in the US a. Liberation! b. American Indian Movement and the Young Lords – 1969 i. Takeover ofAlcatraz Island in 1969 ii. Series of demands like basic sanitation, basic education, etc c. The Young Lords in Chicago 1971 i. Became political radicals d. United Farm Workers i. Begins with migrant farm worker labor union led by Caser Chaves ii. Won major respect and improved working environment for Mexican Americans, especially in California iii. Chicano Rights Movement – new language movement 1. “This is what we call ourselves” 2. The people are self-identifying and demanding the world to adapt that change e. Women’s Liberation and Feminism i. Birth control response was way varied among races of women ii. Sexual Revolution iii. Biological foundation for modern feminism f. Gay and Lesbian Liberation – Sexual Revolution more broadly i. Stonewall, New York 1969 ii. Gay Pride parade, San Francisco 1970s iii. Police had been raiding gay bars for generations; set number of rules to keep women in the bar so it doesn’t get raided to be a gay club. One night, drag queens decided they had enough; they fought back and barricaded themselves inside the b
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