ANTHRO 2AC Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: William Duncan Strong, Direct Historical Approach, Pecos National Historical ParkPremium
Course CodeANTHRO 2AC
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Anthro 2AC Lecture 7 Notes-Archaeology
Modern US Archaeology established with the founding of the Society for American Archaeology
Direct Historical Approach -a major concept that culture historians developed
● Linking the present with the past, working from people and their activities today, back
into the past, to link the present -one step at a time-with what happened in the past and
all of its ramifications.
● William Duncan Strong and James Ford (US) (1920-1930)
● This approach based on analogy, analogical reasoning.
● First applied to places like the American Southwest.
Taos Pueblo (1900) compared to Pecos Pueblo (1300)
In this temporal classificatory discussion:
artifact types became important patterns and meaning of things
James Ford (1940-50) North American, focused on this approach in the Eastern US to
A type: Class of objects that share traits (attributes) within assemblages.
● Ford: The type concept: thought that types were subjective constructs created in
the past. Use direct historical approach to understand them better.
● Spaulding: the statistical approach: did not agree, types are what we create in
our analysis. By applying statistics to our artifact counts we can get at types.
[Are types created in the past or in the present, or both?This became an
central anthropological emic-etic debate for years:What do these terms
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