GEOG_130 (6/18)

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University of California - Berkeley
GEOG 130
Nicole C.List

GEOG 130 (6/18) Golden Rice ○ Golden Rice Opportunity or Hoax? ■ GM product to have fortified Vitamin A ■ Golden rice is bad (Vandana Shiva) ● Collapse in production for those not growing Golden Rice ● Will not remove Vitamin A deficiency, may aggravate it if technology fails on promise (low levels) ● Not enough per person! Must eat a person’s ration for 4 days in order to get enough Vitamin A ● Intensive irrigation = affect water supplies b/c of inputs ○ Water problems in future, esp. b/c Indian water from snow caps ○ Lost of knowledge in growing traditional crops that require less water b/c so used to growing rice & it is not something that can be consistently done ● Agribusiness profit off of poor ○ Monoculture + demand for rice → prices rise ● Reduce biodiversity ○ Vegetables rich in vitamin A will be removed for rice fields ○ = Aggravate Vitamin A deficiency ○ Monoculture versus wide variety of crops ○ Slippery slope ● Primitive accumulation! ○ Farmers would be reliant on seeds ● Destruction of culture ○ Specific types of rice that people are used to eating ● Import Deficiency ■ Golden rice is good (Bjorn Lonborg) ● Produces Vitamin A = fights against blindness & death ● Provides a fighting chance for poor children ● High yields ● $100/person versus $4300 ● Only need 2 ounces to get enough Vitamin A (more efficient than Shiva’s “bad science”) ● Plants god in vitamin A has already existed for hundreds of years but has not addressed the deficiency Commodity Chain Analysis and Tuna Fish ● What are the politics, economics, and social-environmental relations that go into creating our food systems? ● Commodity chains can be shaped by unexpected politics Tuna Fish ● Fish are food, but in what ways are they different than the other types of food we have discussed thus far? ○ They are wild, are hunted ■ Unless fish farms (even still move around) ■ Difference in quality ○ They are migratory, interesting property relations ■ Escape property rights by moving between sovereign waters ■ Who owns? Who catches? ○ Very important in the developing world ■ Dependence for protein ■ Income ■ Exports ○ Marine conditions are overexploited ■ Genetic diversity erosion ○ Their environment has loose property rights ● Exploitation of Fish (Jackson) ○ Overfishing ○ Ecosystem collapse ○ Salmon ■ Cutting down on hunting for season/years for fear of inability to produce ■ Salmon ladders/rerouting spawning sites b/c of dams hurting ability to go to spawning spaces ○ Tuna ● What is a tuna? ○ $736,000/fish BUT 2/$1 ○ Huge price disparity (Tuna cheap in stores) vs. high grade for sushi ○ Subsidized elsewhere (cheap because studies show people who buy tuna buy more of other things in grocery stores) ● Two-tiered global fisheries crisis ○ Resource depletion/Exhaustion ■ Renewable resource, but also exhaustible (low populations & inability to reproduce) ○ Low Economic Returns for Coastal States ● Catch in Western and Central Pacific has increased 10-fold since the 1960s ○ Main catches for canned tuna ○ Yellow-fin/Blue-fin at or beyond full exploitation ● Coastal states tuna revenues are minimal (2005) ○ 6% of revenue of fish caught in waters ○ States unable to maintain stable domestic tuna fish industry (own vessels, processing plants, own workers) = high rates of unemployment) ● The Tuna Industry is Global ○ Fish ○ Fishers ○ Processing ○ Markets ■ US, JPN, new markets (CHN) ○ Regulation ○ Challenges stem from how industry is global. ■ Processing plants global: moved to somewhere cheaper to process fish (human production) ■ Move into different waters owned by different nations on any given day. ● Global Commodity Chain Analysis Explains ○ 1. Environmental degradation ○ 2. Why coastal states get low economic returns ○ Definitions ■ ‘Network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity’ (Hopkins and Wallterstein) ■ ‘Sets of interorganizational networks clustered around one commodity or product, linking households, enterprises and states to one another in a world economy’ (Gereffi and Korzeniewicz) ○ 4 Components
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