GEOG_130 (6/25)

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University of California - Berkeley
GEOG 130
Nicole C.List

GEOG 130 (6/25) Fair Trade Review ● Consumer-based, role of market & price ● Standards ○ Price ○ Environmental management ○ Agrichemical restrictions ○ Social premium ● Changes in Price ○ Collapse of International Coffee Agreement = increase production worldwide ○ Development of fair trade coffee = first minimum fair trade price ○ Real prices for fair trade coffee have declined ● Bacon (2010) use Polyani’s notion of the double movement to describe the governance of fair trade commodities ○ Struggle between two different camps (neoliberal control over commodity vs. greater social protection advocates) ■ Various competing forms and groups even within fair trade camp ○ Fair trade as neoliberal project? ■ Mix of participants in fair trade & production of ‘hybrid’ fair trade value chains/governance within National Labeling Initiatives ■ Commercially -oriented agro-food corporations occupy neoliberal end of spectrum ■ Starbucks = different kind of company? ■ Voices of coffee producers or Alternative Trade Organizations, small- scale producers, unions ● As Alt Trade Organizations gain representation, unions and workers need to gain representation as well. ● Trade > Aid ○ Road to modernism ○ How to fix problems? ○ Fair trade instead of free trade ○ Ethical consumerism = knowing where your food comes from and buy ethically. Review 1. Smith’s Division of labour a. Explaining transformation in global agro-food system? i. Rise of industrial work over agricultural work ii. Increasing productivity & efficiency iii. Division of tasks → spatial division of labour (agriculture in country, industry in city) iv. Global agro-food system becoming increasingly industrialized b. What specific forms/models of the international DOL do these food systems fit into & why? i. Colonial DOL = reliance on third-world & global south as producers, package & process elsewhere → role of trans-national corporations 1. Late Victorian Holocausts (Davis) a. Colonialism (primary production) b. Workshops of the World Model 2. “Internal” DOL = selling inputs to third-world for them to being “agro-colonialism” within own country a. Wheat Complex b. British “breadbasket of the world” c. Colonial nation-state c. Smith to explain agricultural policies & transformation in productivity in these two different instances d. Malthus to explain agricultural policies & transformation in productivity in these two different instances e. Marx to explain agricultural policies & transformation in productivity in these two different instances 2. Strategic Breadbasket a. System of producing surplus = sell abroad (PL480) i. Quality of hunger from Complexes b. Nations sent food aid = reliant on food aid/hooked on grain = sell instead of aid, buy at high prices c. Wrecked production in smaller countries = form of primitive accumulation d. Green Power e. Subsidies 3. Market Liberalization a. Cutting down government influence on markets b. Structural Adjustments i. Devaluing, privatizing industry, reducing export tariffs so foreign companies could import cheap products c. Affected farmers i. Cannot compete w/e imported foods d. Transnational government/world bank wins 4. Green Revolution a. Malthusian fear that population would outgrow agriculture b. Checking of “red” Communist c. Positive i. Highest rates of production d. Negative i. Increasing gap between the rich and poor 5. Viability of GM crops a. SAPs b. Colonies 6. Shiva vs. Golden Rice a. Keep traditional way or agriculture b. Reduction of biodi
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