Pass Law – regulate presence of blacks in urban and “white” South Africa. ID card which
took the form of a sort of book, info on your employment history. Allows a black person to
be present or stay in the duration of the valid pass. Once pass expired (ie. bc end of job
contract), needed to remove self from that urban place and return to rural area. Closely tied
to the labor history of an individual and labor needs of the white community. In case of
women, complicated bc most of the women or large prop –housewives. Bc housewives, did
not have labor contracts or jobs. Should these women be present in urban south Africa if
they were not gainfully employed?
Orange Free State – brings together the two Africana republics – Transvaal and the orange
free state. Brought together w/ cape colony, made the union of south Africa in 1910.
Conflict over passes begins in 1913. Orange free state different in that there was a smaller
number of black individuals in area, not enough labor for white households. White pop was
pushing hard for domestic labor.
Majority of domestic labor is female, would have wished larger number of black women
entering into domestic service.
Endangered women’s lives, esp in terms of sexual abuse. Women were saying that as
women, they should be free from the problems brought about by the pass. Why did they
have to keep renewing those passes if they were housewives?
APO – colored
SANNC -> ANC
Two polit parties working together w/ women towards removal of the pass. Was
instrument of control of movement and what was regarded as black influx into urban areas.
If no pass, considered “surplus” ppl – surplus to the needs of south Africa
World Wars – bulk of action for 1 and 2 world war, but most European powers which
participated in both world wars did have colonies in Africa.
Africa provides human and material resources for the war, tens of thousands participate in
war as soldiers, majority as porters and support. Many Africans die in the war effort.
British east Africa – up to a million recruited into war effort.
Carrier corps –