• Gun-vote diplomacy in Latin America
• See map of US interventions in Central and S America (There were a lot
of them) Some were about getting the canal built but panama belonged to
Colombia and so in 1903 they detached panama from Colombia
• US arrived in asia in 1898 as an imperial power
• Became a satellite of the US in 1875 due to the reciprocity treaty
which allowed Hawaiian sugar into the US without paying the tariff.
(duty free sugar). Big spur in the Hawaiian sugar industry – it booms
and American businessmen start establishing sugar plantations in Hawaii
• 1890, McKinley tariff dropped the preference. Hawaiian sugar was taxed
– it was a disaster for the Hawaiian economy.
• It was nominally an independent kingdom, but a weak king – 1887 he
signed a constitution that put American planters in charge of the
island basically. That king died in 1881 then he was succeeded by his
sister Queen Lilia Alaquiani (SEE SLIDE FOR SPELLING)
• She becomes queen in 1891 and starts a move to revise the constitution.
The Americans (planters in Hawaii) responded by creating a secret
annexation club. If Hawaii becomes part of the US, there would be no
tariff. She declared a new constitution two years later and then was
overthrown by the navy. Then she sent reps to Washington – they just
had to watch while an annexation paper was signed. BUT Pres Cleavelend
refused to sign the treaty and sent a Southern Dem who opposed
annexation on racial grounds – then the coup was considered illegal.
However, the annexation went through anyway. Queen was imprisoned and
advocated to save her supporters lives.
• 1898 – Hawaii war and annexation
• Now the laborers were subject to sucky treatment
A. War of 1898
• Americans were bellicose
• Roosevelt was psyched for this war too – ooo so masculine
o See picture. He was in support of it because of racism. He
thought they were black chaos of savagery and barbarism.
• Sparked by revolution in Cuba against Spain
o Similar to HI except it wasn’t independent. But they were
major sugar producers who had benefited from a reciprocity
o 1894 tariff act ended reciprocity and devastated the
o Exiled revolutionary leaders returned.
o Extremely nasty war in Cuba aimed at driving Spain out
o Super bloody 35k died per year
o Sparked sympathy in the US for Cuban independence
o Some americans thought they needed to impart their power
on this problem
o The Spanish promised autonomy for cuba but this wasn’t
enough for them o At this moment, a US battleship, the Maine, exploded in
Havana harbor – later determined to be an accident but at
the time, they blamed Spain
o Congress declares war on Spain – Mckinley wants to annex
anything conquered. Congress says no because people wanted
to recognize Cuba’s independence, also sugar people didn’t
o Although you can go to war here, you can’t annex cuba
o Platt Amendment – The US was committed to preserving Cuban
independence and to protect liberty and property in Cuba
and the US got two naval bases in Cuba.
o Cubans were not happy but the US said to them, put these
provisions in your constutition or we will invade – later
the Cuba was tied to us economy and then Cubans looked at
it as a horrible betrayal
o Cuba was strategically important to building panama canal
o Lots of AAs supported Cuban independence
o The rescue of cuba as sectional reconciliation (See
picture: Cuba Libre) N and S whites get together against
savagery and barbarism
o Treaty w spain ended the war, and left cub