HISTORY 124A Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Margaret Sanger, William Graham Sumner, Frank Hanly

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4 Oct 2016
School
Department
Lecture 17: Science, Philosophy, & Policy 04/10/2016
02:39:00
Announcements & Recap
MIDQUIZ
oFriday, October 14th in class
oBring blue or green book(s) and pen
Format: Essay question with a few fill-in-the-blank or multiple
choice questions
Final exam date
oWednesday, December 14th, 2016
Recap: Lecture 16: America Imperious
The Gospel of Germs
Drinking fountain with communal drinking cup in New England in
the late 1800s
oDiscovery of bacteria led to the removal of the common cup
and the adoption of disposable paper cups at the drinking
fountain
Miasma theory of disease held that diseases were caused by
floating invisibly clouds
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
oDebunked spontaneous generation in 1861
oArticulated the germ theory of disease in the 1870s
Robert Koch (1843-1910)
oDiscovers the anthrax bacteria in 1876
A visiting nurse wearing a white apron teaching an immigrant
mother how to safely prepare a baby’s bottle, 1912
A municipal health department sanitation official inspects a private
kitchen
San Francisco hired its first health inspector in 1876.
In 1896, the list of complaints the inspector responded to included:
oOpen privy vaults
oNo connection with street sewer
oWater-closets out of order
oFoul open vault
oFilthy water-closets
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oNo water in closets
oWater pipes leaking
oFilthy water-tank
oBoneyard
The toddler’s bib says “I Don’t Want to Get Sick, Please Do Not Kiss
Me” no date
Poster from 1918
National Tuberculosis Association parade from the early 1920s
A 1917 message connecting fly killing to WWI patriotism
A typical middle class bathroom from the 1880s, shown with a “sinc
solution,” a device to prevent sewer gas from entering the
bathroom. Note the wood paneling, rug, and wallpaper
To reduce the presence of germs, the old Victorian style was
replaced by smooth hard surfaces such as tile and porcelain, 1887
Evolution
Darwinism
oLouis Agassiz (1807-1873)
Biologist and geologist at Harvard, rejected Darwin’s
beliefs in favor of creationism
oAsa Gray (1810-1888)
Botanist at Harvard, accepted Darwin’s ideas and
argued that they were compatible with religious belief
oThomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)
A Columbia and CalTech geneticist who experimented
with fruit flies and confirmed Gregor Mendel’s
inheritance arguments, thus eliminating theories that
competed with Darwin’s.
Social Darwinism
oHerbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Coined the phrase “survival of the fittest” in 1864 and
applied it to human society.
oWilliam Graham Sumner (1840-1910)
Yale economist who published What Social Classes Owe
to Each Other in 1883
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