HISTORY 124A Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, Gustave Le Bon, Walter Lippmann

21 views5 pages
31 Oct 2016
School
Department
Lecture 28: Manufacturing Cars, Manufacturing
Consumers
Announcements and Recap
Essay due Friday, Nov 18 at 2pm via bCourses.
No class Wednesday November 23rd and Friday November 25th
Advertising
Rowland H. Macy (1822-1877) of Macy’s Department Store
John Wanamaker (1838-1922) of Wanamaker’s Department Store
o “the time to advertise is all the time,” and “Half the money I
spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is I don’t know
which half.”
Gustave Le Bon (1842-1931) published The Crowd: A Study of the
Popular Mind in 1895
o Crowd mentality is different from individual mentality
Graham Wallas (1858-1932) published Human Nature in Politics in
1908
o Liberal notion of democracy is the battleground for the best
policy
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) publishes Group Psychology and the
Analysis of the Ego in 1922
o Individual psychology having a component of a social
psychology in it at all times
o The individual is always a part of a crowd
Walter Lippmann (1889-1974) who was mentored by Wallas,
published Public Opinion in 1922.
o “public opinion must be organized for the press if they are to
be sound, not by the press as is the case today.”
Edward Bernays (1891-1995) who was Freud’s nephew, worked
with Creel during WWI and published Propaganda in 1928
o “If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group
mind, it is now possible to control and regiment the masses
according to our will without them knowing it.”
Paul Nystrom, economist and marketing professor at Columbia
University
o Observed in 1928 that if a person does not participate in the
fashion cycle, “there will be quizzical looks, doubtful stares
and critical estimates…He will be judged as lacking in brain
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
power and, perhaps, as an undesirable person. If he persists
[in violating the norms of consumption]…he will, if he is an
employee, lose his job! He will lose customers if he is a
salesman; he will lose votes if he is a politician…He will lose
all of his friends.”
Ivy Lee (1877-1934) worked with Creel during WWI
o One of the first full-time corporate spokesmen.
Department Stores
Department stores through the 1920s offered an array of services
to remove the burdens from shopping, including:
o Babysitting
o Emergency hospitals with nurse
o Lunch rooms
o Information bureaus
o Free art exhibits and lectures
o Live music
o Free delivery
o Waiting rooms
o Gift suggestion departments
o Parcel checkrooms
o 1859The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company (A&P)
founded
o 1912Nearly 500 stores
o 1912-1915A&P opens a new story every three days
o 1922—A&P was doing over 11% of America’s food business
o Woolworth store:
1879F. W. Woolworth founds his first five and dime
store.
1886He has 7 stores
1895He has 28 stores.
190059 stores.
Cars
Alfred Sloan (1875-1966)
o As president of General Motors in the 1920s, Sloan developed
the idea of the yearly model, and different car brands with
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.