Mar 5 1946 - winston churchill said: an iron curtain has descended across the continent , Diff w/e solutions to catastrophe of world wars, based on their diff exps of ww2. Huge armies prevented either side from significantly interfering w/ the others" affairs -> development of 2 europes. All peace-making attempts today try bridge that gap. Scale of devastation in may 1945 is hard to fathom - whole context for beg of cold war (cw) Esp in ger, where allied bombing in final months of war had adopted unprecedented policy of intentionally massacring civilians. Polish capital of warsaw - had been systematically torched/dynamited by retreating ger troops -> 90% homes destroyed; unprecedented millions were homeless in rus/ger . Am occupation zone in ger, 1945: ration of 850 calories/day; vienna, 800cal; budapest, 556 joke in ger in 1944: better enjoy the war, the peace is gonna be really terrible calories for adults .