Class 7- Variation, Speciation, and Heritability.docx

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

9/19/13  4 hypothesis for Homo sapien: Candeabra (false, directionality), Multi Regionalism, Replacement, A lil introgression (true, DNA!)  Variation o Plato’s allegory of the cave  Socartes  Plato  Aristotle  Plato: Beautiful world somewhere else  Aristotle: think of it in your head, father of biology  Linneaus: classified! (holotype and paratype)  Naming a new species o Holoype: #, just one  How to name: specimen has to be held in a museum/public space and publish name publicly  Ex: #43898 Canis latrans incolatus  Ex: Kuseracolobus hafu - mandible o Paratypes: group of specimen that you’re associating with the new species  Time is static – once you name something, it’s stuck!  Biological Species concept: interbreeding natural populations, isolated o Mule doesn’t count  Evolutionary Species concept: a lineage that maintains its integrity with respect to other lineages (keeps to itself)  Intro to statistics o Mean 2 o Variance (σ ) – how spread out the data is  What is the average distance from the mean squared o Distribution – flatter: lots of variance, bimodal/trimodal distribution, show histogram o Standard deviation: square root of the variance  Normal distribution: 68% 95% 99.7% o Statistical significance: how much evidence we have against the null hypothesis (opposite of what you want to prove) o Confidence interval:
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