Class 15 - Obesity

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

10/17/13  Body fat and obesity o Maps: show obesity spreading drastically  Measuring body fat o Hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing) o Calibers (anthropometry – skinfold measurements) o DEXA (dual xray absorptiometry, whole body scan that reads bone and soft tissue) o BMI = weight (kg)/ h 2  Muscular people seem overweight/obese  Really inactive fat people seem underweight  Canto vs Owen calorie diets, restricted Canto = a lot healthier o Not true when retested. No difference. o However, older calorie restricted = healthier  Health risks of obesity o Heart disease and stroke o High blood pressure o Diabetes o Cancer o Gallbladder disease and gallstones o Osteoarthritis o Gout – disease of kings, uric acid crystallized in joints - arthritis o Breathing problems: sleep apnea, asthma  Diabetes: o Insulin = hormone that takes sugar/glucose from blood to cells o Diabetics have too much glucose in the blood stream o Type 1: 5-10% of total diabetics, juvenile, body doesn’t produce insulin o Type 2: most common form, adult onset, body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the cells are resistant to it o Gestational o Lots across the US o More obese = more chance of being diabetic/having various diseases o Environmental influence  Diff populations around the world (Japanese living in Japan vs America)  More western = more type 2 diabetes  Obese women are 25-45% less likely to conceive than a normal/overweight woman o Men too! o Overweight pregnant women = higher risk  Gestational diabetics, neural tube defects, macrosomia, low Apgar scores  Types of Genetic Effects o Monogenic  Dominant  Codominant  Recessive o Oligogenic
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