Class 16 - Blood and Disease

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Integrative Biology
Leslea Hlusko

10/22/13  Heart disease is the biggest causes of death  Founder: person with mutaton that gets passed down o Ex: Hereditary Hemochromatosis  Northern Europenas  HFE gene – C282Y, same mutation from about 800 years ago (Celtic viking decent)  Body is too good at absorbing iron  Liver problems?  5/1000 Northern Europeans  Can stem back to one ancestor  How to determine how long ago was the founder – use chromosomes! o Small region = long ago, long region = more recent  Sickle cell anemia – classic simple example o Deals with red blood cells – hemoglobin (transports oxygen) o Anemia reduces red blood cells or screws up hemoglobin o Donut  sickle shape  Can’t function as well, can’t produce enough  Survives 40-60 days  4 days  Don’t transport oxygen well enough – tissue death  Can’t flow through veins as well  Painful and reduces life span   Death in infancy?  Cause of sickle cell anemia o Point/Missense mutation – abnormal hemoglobin  Glu  Val  Hydrophilic  hydrophobic  Protein crystallizes and stiffens  sickle  Inheritance of sickle o Autosomal recessive o HbA – dominant vs HbS – recessive o Only homozygous are screwed over  Linus Pauling o Suggested problem with hemoglobin  1/12 african americans have sickle cell trait/heterozygotes o Stress brings out symptoms  Ex: athletes o More common in certain areas of the map than others  Malaria o Causes chills, fever, and weakness o 4 species of parasitic protozoa that infect red blood cells  2 are worse, one kills kids – but if you get through it, you get somewhat immune o Complex life cycle with mosquito/human ho
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