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Lecture 18

Lecture 18 - Fertility: The Biology

3 Pages

Integrative Biology
Course Code
Leslea Hlusko

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Lecture #18 – Fertility: The Biology I. Average number of babies women have over a lifetime correlate with the population growth rate II. 2010-2012: 4 million babies in the US III. Human Reproduction a. Fertility: the production of a live birth (actual birth) b. Fecundity: the biological capacity to reproduce (theoretical potential to give birth) i. Crucial to fertility: fecundity interacts with other behavioral processes to determine the level of fertility 1. e.g. cultural practices a. Use of contraception i. Increase use of contraception = decrease in production of babies ii. Average age at first birth increases over time IV. Natural Fertility Populations = don't use contraception a. Populations leave natural fertility when… i. Couples believe that control of # of offspring is possible, desirable, and acceptable ii. Gains access to methods of birth control iii. Change behavior after max # of children is met V. Natural vs. Controlled a. Dispersion of births- i. Natural: number births are spread out ii. Controlled: high number of births in the early years compared to the decrease in later years b. Total fertility rate- i. Natural: high ii. Controlled: low c. Seasonality: more babies are born on diff seasons i. Different between populations ii. DOES NOT CORRELATE WITH TEMPERATURE d. Examples of Natural Fertility Populations i. Kung San of Botswana 1. Mean=4.6 2. SD=2.2 ii. Amish 1. Mean=6.3 2. Standard deviation=3.3 iii. Hutterites 1. Total fertility rate(avg # of kids)=9.8 e. Factors contributing to variance in natural fertility i. Age at menarche (period started become fecund) ii. Age at marriage (become sexually attractive) iii. Waiting time to conception iv. Time added by fetal loss v. Length of gestation (development till birth 9mos) 1. If increased = decrease of TFR vi. Duration of lactational infecundability (length of time nursing babies) vii. Age at menopause (no longer fecund) *TFR theoretical max: 31* VI. Human Reproductive Biology a. Women and male genitalia are homologous b. SRY gene determines male characteristics after 6 weeks (evolved 300 mya) VII. Importance of hormones a. Estradiol and progesterone & testosterone = produced in gonads b. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), prolactin = produces in the pituitary VIII. Male Anatomy a. Spermatogenesis(creating sperm
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