L & S C30Y Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon, Gregor Mendel, Christian Doppler

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Lecture 7 2/7/2017 2:08:00 PM
Anatomical humans rose in Africa
A small portion of those humans left Africa and populated the rest
of the world
Prof Nielsen et al, Nature 2017:
“Fourth, the genes that show the greatest difference in allele
frequency between continental groups (indigenous Africans,
Europeans, Americans, and Australians) are enriched for
associations with visible traits such as skin, hair, and eye
pigmentation. An interesting consequence is that the geographic
groups are more different from each other in terms of pigmentation
than they are, on average…”
Any two Africans are just as different from each other as any other two
humans from other parts of the world. Africa is the most genetically diverse
place.
“Ethics Questions Arise as Genetic Testing of Embryos Increases”
Her eggs and sperm from her husband
Ms. Kalinsky and her husband ended up with 12 embryos from in
vitro fertilization.
o Six that had the GSS gene were discarded.
Carrier screening
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
His garden in Brno, and his first law that he discovered based on
data from that garden
You have two copies of every gene*
o One important exception
o You have a 50% chance of passing either one to your child
Peasant family (b. 1822)
Showed exceptional promise
Went to U Vienna, had Christian Doppler as a teacher
Heredityso obvious, and so challenging
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Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
“Buffon was interested in the problem of hybrids, but chose to work
with quadrupeds. It turned out to be difficult to do on a controlled
cross. For instance, during an attempt to mate a wolf with a dog,
the female wolf ate the dog she was supposed to mate to, and then
mauled the coachman.”
What did Mendel discover?
He discovered genes
Furthermore, he discovered two basic, universal principles,
according to which the genes are transmitted from generation to
generation.
The adult Homo sapiens is diploid.
The nucleus of a human cell contains two complete copies of the
human genome (one from Mom and one from Dad)
o This does not mean that these copies are identical.
One copy of a genome is enough to built a living organism.
But all our cells have two copies.
This meanstwo copies of every gene
o Same gene but sequence is different
o Allele: different flavors/forms of the same thing
Alleles of a Leonardo painting
Alleles of dancers (different types of dancing)
But not identical copies!!!
Why is Mendel’s first law true?
Because of how meiosis works.
The raison d’etre of two types of cell division
Mitosis
o Generate two daughter cells identical to each other and to the
mother cell
o DNA replication
o The two genetically identical copies of each chromosome
separate into daughter cells
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