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Lecture 12

L & S C30Y Lecture Notes - Neural Tube Defect, Electrochemical Gradient, Anencephaly
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5 Pages
15 Views
Spring 2017

Department
Letters And Science
Course Code
L & S C30Y
Professor
Urnov Fyodor
Lecture
12

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Lecture 12 2/28/2017 2:11:00 PM
Michael Pollan: letter to “Farmer-in-Chief”
The public health catastrophe that is the modern American diet
At the other extreme of the situation
In 2012, 49.0 million people lived in food-insecure households.
“Crop plants and animals must one again be married on the farm”
“Sunlight nourishes the grasses and grains, the plants nourish the
animals, the animals then nourish the soil, which in turn nourishes
the next season’s grasses and grains.”
First law of thermodynamics
The total amount of energy in a universe stays constant:
o Euniversei = Esystem + Esurroundings
Change in Esystem (change in energy in system)
Where does your heat go? Into the environment about you.
o Change in Esystem + Change in Esurroundings = 0
Basic, broad science literacy is a sine qua non of modern civilized society.
Core Equations of Life
Animal
o C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy
o Sugar + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energy
o There is, energetically speaking, no difference in this regard
between humans and a steam engine train.
Plant
o CO2 + H2O + energy C6H12O6 + O2
o C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy
o The plant captures that energy and uses it for its own
purposes.
o LightEnergy of light splits water, releases oxygen and an
electron.
o Energy of “excited” electron used to pump protons across a
membrane
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o That “proton gradient” is used to generate energy in
“storable” form.
o CO2 + ATP + reducing power C6H12O6
Thomas Englemann
Took a photosynthetic alga and put it in water, then sprinkled some
bacteria that required oxygen to grow. He illuminated the dish with
alga with a rainbow.
Why are plants green?
o It’s the least absorbed pigment. They don’t use energy of
green light.
Within 12 hours of putting the rainbow, the bacteria rearranged
themselves.
Good final question: What would be a good negative control
for this experiment?
Genomic plasticity in the face of dietary pressure
DNA and Diet
Two vignettes
Prenatal vitamins and risk of neonatal neural tube defects
Maternal hunger and impact on baby in adulthood
Epigenetics
The way that genes learn from the environment
Genes Genome
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Description
Lecture 12 2/28/2017 2:11:00 PM Michael Pollan: letter to “Farmer-in-Chief”  The public health catastrophe that is the modern American diet At the other extreme of the situation  In 2012, 49.0 million people lived in food-insecure households. “Crop plants and animals must one again be married on the farm”  “Sunlight nourishes the grasses and grains, the plants nourish the animals, the animals then nourish the soil, which in turn nourishes the next season’s grasses and grains.” First law of thermodynamics  The total amount of energy in a universe stays constant: o Euniversei = Esystem + Esurroundings  Change in Esystem (change in energy in system)  Where does your heat go? Into the environment about you. o Change in Esystem + Change in Esurroundings = 0 Basic, broad science literacy is a sine qua non of modern civilized society. Core Equations of Life  Animal o C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy o Sugar + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy o There is, energetically speaking, no difference in this regard between humans and a steam engine train.  Plant o CO2 + H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + O2 o C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy o The plant captures that energy and uses it for its own purposes. o LightEnergy of light splits water, releases oxygen and an electron. o Energy of “excited” electron used to pump protons across a membrane Lecture 12 2/28/2017 2:11:00 PM Michael Pollan: letter to “Farmer-in-Chief”  The public health catastrophe that is the modern American diet At the other extreme of the situation  In 2012, 49.0 million people lived in food-insecure households. “Crop plants and animals must one again be married on the farm”  “Sunlight nourishes the grasses and grains, the plants nourish the animals, the animals then nourish the soil, which in turn nourishes the next season’s grasses and grains.” First law of thermodynamics  The total amount of energy in a universe stays constant: o Euniversei = Esystem + Esurroundings  Change in Esystem (change in energy in system)  Where does your heat go? Into the environment about you. o Change in Esystem + Change in Esurroundings = 0 Basic, broad science literacy is a sine qua non of modern civilized society. Core Equations of Life  Animal o C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy o Sugar + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide + water + energy o There is, energetically speaking, no difference in this regard between humans and a steam engine train.  Plant o CO2 + H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + O2 o C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O + energy o The plant captures that energy and uses it for its own purposes. o LightEnergy of light splits water, releases oxygen and an electron. o Energy of “excited” electron used to pump protons across a membrane
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