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Lecture 20

L & S C30Y Lecture 20: Lecture 20

7 Pages

Letters And Science
Course Code
L & S C30Y
Urnov Fyodor

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Lecture 20 4/6/2017 2:11:00 PM Sprinter—Usain Bolt • Fast twitch muscle fibers make the difference • Also being Jamaican probably helps—low Hemoglobin and Early Training People have gene variants that do the same thing as blood doping. The Start of the alpha Actinin 3 Story • Important molecule for muscle development • If someone with a disease is missing it, how do we know if that mutation is causing the disease? • Alpha Actinin 3 genotype is associated with elite athletic performance • The X allele causes loss of alpha actinin 3 The pitch—as in sales pitch • Know and understand the type of sports your body is optimal for on a genetic level But… Genotype is not destiny • Spanish elite long jumper, two times Olympian, (Faster and longer) with no alpha-actinin-3 in skeletal muscles? FDA shut down gene screening. Cal got in trouble for doing it for free for incoming freshmen. Anatomy of Human Vision • Light goes in through the front, but gets interpreted in the back • 3 cone types for three primary color perception o red o green o blue Visual Acuity Varies in the Population • What does 2020 mean? o At 20 feet from that eyechart, you are able to distinguish what people can read at 20 feet • 2030 o at 20 feet, you can distinguish what people can read at 30 feet An Action Potential—the “thought” of a single neuron A reflex loop—no brain involvement—150 msec Baseball players tend to have really good vision, better than 2020 Should genetic testing of student athletes be allowed? Made mandatory? Can we breed for athletic performance? • In horses, we can. o Secretariat: 1973 Triple Crown o Seattle Slew 77 Triple Crown ▪ Wanted to run o American Pharoah: 2015 riple Crown ▪ Product of highly selective breeding ▪ One of the descendants of Secretariat ▪ Northern Dancer is TWO of the 32 great-great- grandparents • Also in greyhounds • Can we do this in humans? o Mitch Larkin and Emily Seebolm—Australia; swimming o Ashton Eaton (US) and Brianne Theisen-Easton (Canada)— track and field o Their kids would be influen
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