M E STU 10 Lecture 7: Arab-Israeli Wars

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University of California - Berkeley
Middle Eastern Studies
M E STU 10
Mahmood Monshipouri

M E STU 10 Lecture 7 ArabIsraeli Wars ArabIsraeli Wars (1948 1959) UN resolution 181 partition of Palestine into independent Arab and Jewish states 56 land to Israel, 42 to Palestinians, 2 international supervision Arabs scoffed at the resolution Israel was created on May 14, 1948 On May 15, 2948, Arab armies invaded new Israel The US and the USSR condemned Arab actions and confirmed Israel Deir Yassin massacre Benny Morris: 60 of Palestinians in Israel were expelled from 49 villages Other fled from 62 villages Most went to West Bank, Gaza, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt Consequences Israel occupied more land than originally intended Transjordan because Kingdom of Jordan Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip along the Mediterranean Sea Displacement of Palestinian people Today, out of 21 million refugees, 5 million are Palestinians Military coup that overthrew monarchy in Egypt Palestinian Arabs were transformed into permanent refugees Egypt, Syria, and Iraq faced mounting domestic unrest Why were the Arabs defeated? Arab states were not united in their objectives Transjordan opposed Palestinian selfdetermination 1948 defeat Transjordan fought for control of West Bank and Jerusalem Jordans King Abdullah was assassinated in 1951 because of his negotiations with Israelis over the partition of Palestine. Disarray, accentuated by the lack of Arab military coordination, led to defeat. Gamal Abdel alNasser Projected spirit of hope and preserving Arab independence Proclaimed abrogation of 1936 treaty with British government Corruption and landed aristocracy Nasser: land reform and proclamation of Arab socialism World Bank approved loan package for building a dam across the Nile July 1956 US government withdrew loan offer 1956 elections were a factor in Eisenhowers decision September 1955 Czech arms deal became a considerable annoyance in Washington and London Asked Soviets and made arms deal July 26, 1956 Egypt nationalized Suez Canal Nassers action was greeted with enthusiasm Nationalism of Canal was met with fierce resistance by France and England So the West coordinated with Israel to get rid of Nasser US position
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