M E STU 10 Lecture 4: Foundations of Islam continued

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Middle Eastern Studies
M E STU 10
Mahmood Monshipouri

M E STU 10 Lecture 4 Foundations of Islam continued 3 most crucial years that altered the Middle East fundamentally: 1915, 1916, 1917 ISIS wants to go back to the time before those years changed everything Ottoman Empire contributions: Innovative military practices Artistic pursuits: pottery, jewelry, carpet weaving, calligraphy Architectural wonders Institutional and bureaucratic practices Era of the Ottomans (12801923) The Ottomans claimed to be the Caliphate (heir to Muhammad) Their tradition was a TurkoIslamic blend Social and cultural conservatism Military conquests Millet system: ethnic and religious communities that were tolerant of differences as long as those groups paid taxes Millet system was organized around religious, not ethnic affiliation because the Ottomans wanted to preserve Islamic identity Significant religious groups Greek Orthodox Catholic Evangelical Apostolic Jewish Periods Golden Years (12801566): the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empire Stagnation (15661800s): military defeats, territorial retreat, industrial underdevelopment Nationalism and decline (18001921): rise of Turkish nationalism Collapse (19221923): local, national loyalties tore the empire apart Ottoman institutions Sultan: caliph system Grand vizier: day to day political affairs of the government Grand mufti: Ottoman slave system Military Civil service (bureaucracy) Millet system Armenian Massacre The Armenian massacre happened because the Turkish suspected them of collaborating with Russians and their heavy presence in Turkey annoyed them Now, the Armenian massacre is still a legal issue, theyre trying to making reparations, and trying to make litigation addressing it Strategies In Aug. 2, 1914 Enver Pasha (the leader of CUP) concluded a secret OttomanGerman alliance against Russia In Oct. 29 1914, The Ottoman fleet bombarded Russian ports on the Black Sea
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