PB HLTH 150B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Safe Drinking Water Act, Norovirus, Disinfectant

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Lack of funding and political will
Approximately 1.5 million children under age 5 die each year from diarrheal
disease
2.5 billion people do not have access to sanitation facilities
1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water
Global Burden of Disease
Almost one tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving
water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources
Multi-barrier Concept
Source protection
Disinfection
Filtration
Operator Competence
Distribution operations and maintenance
Lead to safe water
Viruses that cause diarrhea
Norovirus
Rotovirus
Clean water Act of 1972: Discharges into surface water or underground aquifers
(protecting the sources)
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1975: Treatment, monitoring, reporting of water quality in
public drinking water systems
Governs treatment, monitoring and reporting of:
Physical
Chemical
Microbial
Radiology
Contaminants in public drinking water
Does not include water in schools and bottled water
Safe drinking water Act process
USEPA Review of the science
Contaminant Candidate List
USEPA Proposal
Public Comment
Final Promulgation
State Proposal
6 year review
Goals
For contaminants with no threshold for adverse effects
MCLG = zero as default
Generally set between 1/10000 and 1/million increased lifetime risk for
cancer, based on risk assessments
For contaminants showing a threshold for adverse effects
MCLG based on RfD
Strength and limits of Epidemiological studies
• Strengths
Especially useful where high rates of rare diseases occur in small
populations
Provide data on the actual incidence of disease
Dose-response and exposure estimates not needed
• Limits
Less effective in determining the causes of common diseases in large
populations
Difficulties correlating data across geographic areas
Difficult to definitively prove cause and effect
Strength and limits of Epidemiological studies
Strengths
Environmental factors such as exposure to other contaminants, can be
controlled
Control facilitates interpretation of results
• Limits
Uncertainty associated with extrapolating
§From high does tested to environmentally relevant doses
§From effects on animals to effects on human
Lec 10/18
Thursday, October 18, 2018
12:43 PM
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Document Summary

Global burden of disease: almost one tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. Clean water act of 1972: discharges into surface water or underground aquifers (protecting the sources) Safe drinking water act of 1975: treatment, monitoring, reporting of water quality in public drinking water systems: governs treatment, monitoring and reporting of: Radiology: contaminants in public drinking water, does not include water in schools and bottled water, does not include water in schools and bottled water. Safe drinking water act process: usepa review of the science, contaminant candidate list, usepa proposal, public comment, final promulgation, state proposal, 6 year review. Goals: for contaminants with no threshold for adverse effects. Generally set between 1/10000 and 1/million increased lifetime risk for cancer, based on risk assessments: for contaminants showing a threshold for adverse effects. Strength and limits of epidemiological studies: strengths.

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