PHYS ED 32 Lecture Notes - Lipoprotein, Coronary Artery Disease, Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

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23 Oct 2013
School
Lecture 1: Cardiovascular Health
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Statistically half of us (53%) are going to die from this disease (leading cause of death
worldwide))
CVD are diseases of the heart and blood vessels
o includes atherosclerosis, heart attack and stroke
Narrowing of blood vessels as they are filling up with plaque
Function of the heart
4 chambers/valves controlled by leaflets
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) caused by the building up of plaque leading to a heart
attack
2 pumps in one
Definitions:
Atherosclerosis: the clogging and narrowing of the arterial walls with deposits of fat,
cholesterol and other compounds known as plaque
Ischemia: inadequate blood flow due to constriction/blockage of an artery, resulting in oxygen
supply < oxygen demand
Thrombus: A blood clot formed within the vascular system of the body and impeding blood
flow.
Manifestations of CVD:
Angina Pectoris: possible areas of radiating pain: neck, jaw, upper abdomen, shoulders
and arms
Myocardial Infarction: heart attack. Can be prevented by taking low doses of aspirin
Stroke: Occurs when brain is starved of oxygen due to pieces of plaque braking free
and causing clots. Warning signs: half of the face droops, can only raise one arm.
Arrhythmias: heart is defibrillating. Defibrillation AED (automated external) vs. IED
(implanted)
Diagnosis/Treatment for CVD
Diagnosis
o Exercise stress test
o Echocardiogram, angiogram
Treatment for Ischemia
o Angioplasty, PCI, CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft) to restore supply
o Exercise training, medications to lower demand
Lifestyle changes
o Healthy diet and regular exercise
o Steps to lower inflammation
o Risk factor modification
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