PHYS ED 32 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Golgi Tendon Organ, Stretching, Proprioception

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4 Mar 2019
School
Flexibility, Balance, and Low-Back Health
What is Flexibility?
The ability to move a joint fluidly thru its full range of motion (ROM)
Benefits:
Joint health/mobility
Relieve muscle tension, pain
Prevent injuries
Improved posture
Relaxation
What Determines Flexibility? (Fig 5.1)
Flexibility of a joint is affected by:
Joint Structure (cannot be changed)
Muscle Tissue & Fascia
Tendons, Ligaments
Tendons attach muscle to bone
Ligaments connect bone to bone
Skin
Types of Flexibility
There are two types of flexibility:
Static Flexibility: Ability to hold an extended position at one end of a joint’s
range of motion
Dynamic Flexibility: Ability to move a joint through its full range of motion with
little resistance
Proprioceptors
Nerves that detect changes in length & tension, resulting in contraction or relaxation
Muscle Spindle -- respond to changes in length in muscle fibers
Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) -- respond to changes in tension within muscle groups
Stretching Techniques
Ballistic Stretching
Muscles are stretched suddenly in forceful, bouncing movements
Triggers reflex muscle contraction
Static Stretching
Slow, gradual stretches to the point of slight tension, holding for 10-30 seconds
Reduced receptor response, which increases the depth of stretch
FITT-VP Principles to Develop Flexibility (Fig 5.2)
Frequency: At least 2-3 days/week (max of 7)
Intensity: Stretch to the point of mild discomfort, not pain, & relax/breathe easily
Time: Hold static stretch 10-30 seconds
Type: Focus of major joints
Volume: 2-4 repetitions; 60 secs each stretch
Progression: Build flexibility slowly, through full ROM
Stretching Techniques -- Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
PNF -- Contract-Relax method
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