PHYS ED 32 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Body Mass Index, Body Composition, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

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18 Mar 2019
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Body Composition, Weight Management
Determining Ideal Body Weight -- People come in all different shapes and sizes
Original Body Compositions
Endomorph: Predominance of digestive organs, soft rounded contours
Mesomorph: Abundance of fat-free mass
Ectomorph: Abundance of surface area: volume, possibly underweight
Defining Overweight and Obesity (Fig. 6.2)
Overweight = Total body weight above the recommended range for good health; about
69% of Americans are overweight
Obesity = An excessive accumulation of body fat; a more serious degree of overweight;
about 39.8% are obese with BMI 30 or greater
The rate of obesity has almost tripled since 1960. (NCHS, 2014)
Body Mass Index
Body Mass Index (BMI): A person’s weight should be proportional to height. BMI is
weight in kgs / ht in meters squared.
Acceptable = BMI 20-24.9 kg/
Overweight = BMI = 25-29.9 kg/
Obesity = BMI ≥ 30 kg/
Health Implications: (Fig 9.1)
As BMI increases, so does the prevalence of many chronic diseases such as
heart diseases, Type 2 diabetes, many cancers, hypertension, premature death.
Moderate weight loss of 5-10% can have a positive impact on health.
Desirable Body Composition (Fig. 6.1)
Essential fat for normal body function (Men 3-5%, Women 8-12%) + non-essential fat
for adipose storage. (Tbl 6.2)
A large part of everything that is not fat is like 75% water.
Fat floats & muscle sinks
Methods to measure % body fat
Bod pod
Energy Balance (Fig. 9.2, Fig 9.3)
Energy In
Food calories
Energy Out
Physical activity 20-40%
Food digestion 5-15%
Resting metabolism 55-75%
Dietary induced thermogenesis (food management)
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