PS5 WWII.docx

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University of California - Berkeley
Political Science

WWII 1) what was wwii about and how did it arise from the inner war period? 2) how did the ends of wwii evolve into the cold war? –standoff between us and ssu - peacemakers in 1919 faced a challenge that was somewhat more difficult - WWi completely destroyed Europe - Germany, Austria and Hungary = revolt - British were in better state but very weak - U.S. entry into the war had turned the tide in favor of the allies (led by Wilson – thought that the war was fought to end power politics – said that WWI had been fought to do a way with a old order, and get a new one – what we “used to call a balance of power” – free nations determined this should end now – Wilson was an idealist and in famous fourteen points envisioned a community of nations built around the concept of collective security d the League of Nations would be the institutional manifestation of collective security – his vision was not shared by European statesmen – not a lot of sentiment in Europe with reconciliation of collective security – Retribution, Retaliation, and Revenge) – - Rules of power: don’t create lots of weak states because they will be annoying, don’t create harsh weak states that will just complain about the system, so what you want is relatively evil and same powers – treaty of Versai that ended WWI broke all of the rules of balance of powers politics – the losers of the war did not even get the opportunity to tell give their views – degenerated into a conflict between Wilson and his former allies about what to do about the defeated states – Wilson wanted to establish the league of nations but France and Britain just wanted to pushing the Germans and make them pay for the wwi and damaged to the point where they couldn’t challenge the Europeans again (very contradictory because a weakened Germany without heavy industry couldn’t pay back massive reparation) - Treaty of Versai was vindictive – failed to restore any legitimate, representative of underlying power in Europe back - Stripped Germany of its colonies, took away some of the richest mining districts and gave it to France, and the unworkable form of government in Germany – but still wanted them to pay retributions - *this lesson was important after Cold War when leaders were making decisions after talking about how to deal with the SU and Russia - League did come into being but Versai made it difficult – made it easy for Wilson’s people at home to call it “an exploited tool for European powers to use to play their old game of power politics” – did not play for Americans because they had an intense desire for isolationism and a return for what they would call normalcy – in the end the U.S. rejected the treaties and forbid any entering the League - Germany not a member until 1946, SU admitted in 1934 (bc communist) only because by then many began to feel that the combination of the Great Depression and Hitler was a larger problem than then being communist - League failed because it really didn’t do much - From Treaty of Versai to WWII – system of structural instabilities o Political arrangements deeply inconsistent with the actual balance of power  1) Germany and what the treaty did to it – underlying power sources were unchanged – still the center of industry and population in Europe, potentially the most powerful economy and military, potentially largest ambition to improve its position  time of instability often constant shits in balance of power (multi vs bipolarity) – so Germany could have really wanted a shift in this power again  2) Cordon Sanitarae  treaty of Versai tried to set up protective built to protect Western Europe from the “virus of communism” – tiny little states in the middle of Europe (serious structural instability!) – Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Austria, Poland, Czech, ect. – idea that they will provide buffer stone between Soviets and western Europe and helped in supporting Wilson’s doctrine that if the people are part of a state they will be more peaceful and not want to shake it up o no way if push comes to shove that these newly born small weak states can protect themselves o 1) economically – Germans set up trading system that would increase vulnerability of small states  established economic hegemony in Eastern Europe Soviets committed to world wide proletarian institution – start communist parties across western Europe – on a international mission  3) Japan’s rise in Asia – greater east asain coprosperity sphere  systematically designed to make states in asia vulnerable in japan and extract resources they need to build up their army  so Japan and Germany have mirror spheres of influence using other little countries to fund their rise o states with Tawain and Korea then Manchuria o but Japan lacks oil and other raw materials – those are in the islands of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore – all protected by British empire  4) U.S. after WWI withdrawed from the world stage – roaring 20s – much of congress and population strongly isolationist – unwilling to play the role of leader that the world distribution of power has open for it  reasons: domestic level of analysis o even presidents who want to take active part in international politics has hard time doing so because of domestic politics o Oct. 1937 – foreign policy speech – tries to open door to more active u.S. – says that there was an epidemic of world walessness spreading – there must be positive endeavors to enstore the peace which the U.S. is capable of doing – provoked public opposition from all citizens groups demanding that the U.S. does not involve itself in the mess of European politics  Systemic reasons: before nuclear weapons, bombers, ect. – U.S. was not directly threatened by the problems that were happening internationally Historical example of politics in multipolarity 1) relationship between France, britian and U.S. – from realist perspective can say there would always be threats to peac
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