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Lecture 19

PSYCH 110 Lecture 19: LECTURE #19_ SLEEP (03_21)

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Robin Ball

LECTURE 19: SLEEP (0321) All mammals sleep Sleep having a higher threshold for sensory input (harder to wake someone up with lights or sound, etc.) Most mammals sleep (range from like 2 hours to 20 hours per day) Dolphins sleep one hemisphere at a time Electroencephalogram (EEG) measures summed electrical activity from any cortical neurons Electrodes stuck on the head (doesnt penetrate the skin), recording extracellular electrical activity in the cortex Beta waves when you are awake, not synchronous, low amplitude Delta waves higher amplitude, lower frequency, slow wave sleep, neurons firing AP at the same time, in sync EEG during the four stages of nonREM sleep five stages: 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. These stages progress cyclically from 1 through REM then begin again with stage 1. A complete sleep cycle takes an average of 90 to 110 minutes. Right before start to fall asleep, beta alpha waves (eyes droopy), synchronized brain activity Once you enter into sleep (higher threshold for sensory info to be received) you are stage 1 arousal threshold is low (easy to wake someone up), drift in and out, the eyes move slowly and muscle activity slows, many people experience sudden muscle contractions preceded by a sensation of falling Stage 2 still light sleep, slower EEG frequency but more synchronized (higher amps), eye movement stops and brain waves become slower with only an occasional burst of rapid brain waves Stage 3 extremely slow brain waves called delta waves are interspersed with smaller, faster waves, deep sleep (no eye movementmuscle activity) Stage 4 the brain produces delta waves almost exclusively, slow wave sleep (high amp, low freq, most synchronous brain activity), deep sleep (no eye movementmuscle activity) From 1 4, arousal threshold increases, heart rate decreases and respiratory rate decreases (slower breathing) NonREM vs. REM NonREM REM Rapid eye movement; rapid, irregular and shallow breathing; limb muscles are temporarily paralyzed; heart rate increase, blood pressure rise Sleep stages 14 Only occur during stage 1 Would find tossing and turning Brain waves similar to levels when person is awake
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