BIOL 2050 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Felis, Binomial Nomenclature, Homo Sapiens

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22 Dec 2016
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Chapter 1
Biology- Study of Life
Cells-Basic unit of life
-all living organisms are composed of one or more cells
Cell Theory- The cell is the basic unit of life, of which all living organisms are
composed, and living organisms can only be derived from pre-existing living cells.
What makes a living organism:
1. Cellular Organization- All living things are composed of one or more living cells.
2. Metabolism- the production and consumption of energy.
3. Homeostasis-Stable internal condition.
4. Growth and Reproduction-both sexual and asexual. Can be increase in number of
cells, size of cells, or production of new cells/organisms (fission-splitting to form
identical copies)
5. Heredity- All organisms contain DNA, which is the genetic material. It contains
the genes that determine how you look and function.
Levels of Complexity in Cells:
1. Atoms- Fundamental elements of matter
2. Molecules- Joining of atoms
3. Macromolecules-Larger more complex molecules
4. Organelles- Membrane bound structures inside the cell that carry out specific
functions for the cell.
5. Cells- Basic Unit of life.
Levels of Complexity in Organisms:
1. Tissues- groups of similar cells that function together as one unit (muscles)
2. Organs- Groups of tissues working together to perform common function
3. Systems- Groups of organs working together to perform common function
4. Organisms- combination of all the previously stated, working together.
Organization of Living Organisms in the World:
1. Population- Organisms of the same species living in the same location at the same
2. Species- Closely related organisms that look alike and mate with each other
3. Community- All the populations of different species living together in the same place
4. Ecosystem- The community, plus its water and soil.
Evolution- the gradual change in organisms over time. This is in response to natural
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Natural Selection- when population’s heritable variations (differences in certain traits)
are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some
individuals over others. (Proposed by Charles Darwin, and Alfred Wallace)
Naming of Organisms:
Taxonomy- the science of naming and classifying organisms
Binomial Nomenclature (derived by Carolos Linnaeus)-all organisms are assigned a 2
part scientific name, derived from the genus and species of that organism
Chapter 15 levels of organization
6 kingdoms: 3 domains Cell Type
Bacteria Bacteria Prokaryotic
Archae Archae Prokaryotic
Protista Eukarya Eukaryotic
Fungi Eukarya Eukaryotic
Plantae Eukarya Eukaryotic
Animalia Eukarya Eukaryotic
Divisions from most inclusive to least inclusivedomain, kingdom, phylum, class, order,
family, genus, and specie
Scientific name is derived from the genus and species of that organisms
Examples: dog- Canis familiaris (C. familiaris)
Wolf Canis lupus (C. lupus)
Cat- Felis domestica (F. domestica)
Human_ Homo sapien (H. sapien)
Exploring Science and Life:
1. Discovery science- scientists describe some aspect of the world, using repeated
2. Hypothesis-Based Science- This uses the scientific method
Theory-Broad in scope, and is supported by much scientific evidence. Could be proven
false at some point, therefore not called a law.
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