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Lecture 1

CAST 2010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Norval Morrisseau, Northwest Passage

Canadian Studies
Course Code
CAST 2010
Mancuso Rebecca

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Go to fort bags and go on tour, staple ticket to 1 page response about it for extra credit
Or watch a canadian movie and write a one page response. Check with her about the movie
Systems, Economy and Culture of racism has carried over through time
- We aren't going to change it all at once but it's important to understand
IN canada, native peoples are not seen as ‘yesterday's people's’
- They are a very large minority and are quite powerful
- They have territories where natives run and work closely with their own government
Native people
- They had no iron, wheels, or firearms
- Commerce based on bartering
- They had territories but no sense of land ownership
- Algonquians-nomadic peoples of eastern and central canada (Ojibway, cree, blackfoot)
- Iroquoians- great lakes regions (more sedentary, relied on agriculture trade. Highly
developed politically) this included mohawk, oneida, onondaga, cayuga, seneca
- Nomadic peoples of the arctic and subarctic
- Pacific- present day british columbia, village dwellers, relied on fishing
- nisga'a, haida, bella coola
- Animistic religion
- Living through an animal
- Giving nonliving things living characteristics
- Believe that things in nature have spirits
- Religious rituals apply to spirits
- People not separate form, or superior to, their physical environment
Arrival of the europeans-cooperation to conflict
- European exploration fueled by combination of new technology and desire for profit
- The search for a northwest passage to china
- John cabot (1497)
- Jacques Cartier (1530s)
- Henry Hudson (1610)
- Cooperation- the fur trade, military alliances
- Meiteis- mixed blood peoples of canada
- COnflict
- native people wanted to confront capitalism euros want farmland
- Cultural conflict- christianity
- Disease, smallpox, influenza
First nations in modern canada- conflict and cooperation
- Land cession treaties, reserve systems
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- Residential schools- 1880s-1960s
- Forbade children from speaking native languages, and practicing native customs
- Rampant abuses
- Social and economic issues
- Oka crisis-1990
- Government wanted to expand a golf course
- Native peoples had sacred burial lands there
- Govt didn't care
- Expanded golf course anyways
- Gvt brough army in, shots were fired, finally realised you can't just be militant and
take everything over
We tend to look at native peoples as victims, but we should perhaps think of them as peoples
with some power, they are not helpless
- Assembly of first nations (the political group of indigenous peoples)
Land Claims
- The nisga'a treaty of 1998- a BC tribe received self government, control of the lands,
resource rights, and 253 million dollars in settlement. This was because people just
started moving in and logging and mining and bc never signed treaties to get permission
to move in.
- Nunavut 1999 given self governing territory
Truth and Reconciliation report
- 2015
- Cultural genocide?
Quallunat- white people video
- Produced by the national film board
Canadian HIstory Overview
- first european settlement in the new world: viking settlement in 1000 ad (L’Anse aux
Meadows, Newfoundland
- Discovered In 1960s
- Nordic peoples tried to establish village, but abandoned it because the native peoples
kept attacking them
- 500 years after, europeans come back to settle
- They were looking for india were hoping to find
- Spices
- Fuel
- Metals
- Labor (slaves)
- Search for the northwest passage
- Christianity was brought in, conversion of the natives
- Staples in economy ‘the 4fs
- Furs
- Forests
- Farms
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- Fishing
- Jacques Cartier's claims land for france in the 1530s
- Erects enormous cross to stake claim in land. This land is not known as montreal
- The city remained static and saw no growth for nearly 75 years because of how difficult it
is to build and grow in the severe cold
Samuel de Champlain ‘father of new france’
- Founded settlements at acadia and quebec (1608)
- Established relations with natives,
- He started the fur trade
Conflict- new england vs. france
- Settling at the same time very close to each other
- French and english do not like each other much
- Anglo-french struggly
- A struggle for dominance in the new world
- Fought for over 100 years for land *from 1690s o 1815
- Areas of now canada were highly contested terrain
The seven years war (1756-1763)
- Battle of the plaines of abraham
- Hid on the ships at night
- Creates line of british soldiers a mile long
- This is why most of n. America speaks english
Treaty of paris -1763
- New france is conquered, becomes british n. america
The quebec act - 1774
- Passed by the british, after the battle of the plaines of abraham
- Under british rule, french colonists were permitted to retain their language, religions,
customs, and las. French culture was entrenched in north america
The most important thing for early canada was survival
The american revolution begins 1775
- 1775-1783
- 40000 war protesters move to canada, 30000 to nova scotia
- British gave white loyalists land grants and supplies
- 3000 were black (free and slave)
- A sense of border begins to form, the two territories began to see each other as
enemies,people with different values and goals
Slavery In canada
- Many slaves escaped during the revolution to canada where they were free
- Wasn't a lot of slavery in canada because there wasn't a lot of farming
- Slavery was outlawed in the british empire in 1833 due to moral and economic
- It was on a small scale
- It was outlawed in 1833
- Black canadians still experience some discrimination
War of 1812
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