CHEM 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Noble Gas, Ion, Covalent Bond

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17 Nov 2017
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Chapter 4: Chemicals Bonds
Intro to Bonding; Ionic Bonds; Naming of ionic compounds
Core Electrons- found in the innermost shell (lower energy levels) that feel pull from
protons and do not participate in bonding
Valence Electrons- Outermost shells (higher energy levels) are not held tightly and
participate in bonding
Lewis Dot Diagram- put the chemical symbol and then dots around it to represent the
valence electrons
Stable Electron configurations:
Fact-Noble gases are INERT (do not undergo chemical reactions).
Theory-Inertness is a result of their configuration (8 valence electrons)
Deduction- Elements become less reactive electrons configuration matches to
that of a noble gas
Cation- Positively charged = losing electron(s)
Anion- Negatively charged = gaining electron(s)
Ion- an atom in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of
protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge
Metals- Lose electrons to take on the electron structure of the previous noble gas,
forming positive ions (cation)
Nonmetals- tend to gain electrons to take on the electron structure of the next noble
gas, forming negative ions (anions)
Reactions- Formation of ionic compounds
Fact: Sodium reacts with Chlorine to form a salt (Sodium Chloride)
Sodium transfers an electron to Chlorine forming ions for both (Na+ Cl-) They
attract each other forming an IONIC BOND
Octet Rule- in chemical reactions, atoms tend to gain, lose, (or share {Covalent bond})
electrons to have 8 valence electrons.
Cl2 + 2Na → 2NaCl (Salt)
Naming of Binary Ionic Compounds: Name the ions (Anions have suffix -ide)
NaCl = Sodium Chloride MgO = Magnesium Oxide
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