CHEM 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Valence Electron, Carbon Tetrachloride, Unpaired Electron

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28 Nov 2017
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Chapter 4 Chemical Bonds
Sections 4.6-4.12 (Covalent Bonds, Lewis Structures, Polyatomic Ions, Molecular
Shapes [VSEPR], Polar and Nonpolar Molecules)
Covalent Bonding Vs. Ionic Bonding
Ionic bonding Complete transfer of valence electrons between atoms
Cation (+) and anion (-) can form an ionic compound
Covalent bonding Sharing of valence electrons between atoms
Bonding pair two valence electrons used in forming covalent bond
Lone pair Valence electrons NOT used to form covalent bond
Can have Single bonds or Multiple bonds between two atoms (Double and
Triple Bonds)
Diatomic molecules Cl2, O2, N2 (cannot exist as a stand-alone atoms)
Lewis Structures
All valence electrons need to be accounted for and included in the Lewis
Structure
Need to show lone pair of electrons in structures
Naming of Binary Covalent Compounds
First Name: Prefix + Name of first element (If the first element has only one
atoms, the prefix mono- is dropped)
Second Name: Prefix + Root name of the second element + suffix -ide
CCl4 = Carbon tetrachloride CO2 = Carbon dioxide
Odd Electron Molecules
Free Radical a molecule with an unpaired electron (NO and NO2)
Electronegativity a measure of an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a bond
(Increases up and to the right)
Nonpolar Covalent Bonds equal sharing of electrons, atoms with similar
electronegativity (no charge separation) (H-H) (C-H)
< 0.5 = Nonpolar covalent 0.5-2.0 = Polar Covalent >2.0 = Ionic
Polar Covalent Bonds Unequal sharing of electrons, atoms with different
electronegativity
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