CHEM 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Polyvinyl Chloride, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Nylon 6

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30 Nov 2017
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Chapter 10: Polymers
Sections 10.1 10.6 Different types of polymers; Properties of polymers
Polymers Word polymer is derived from Greek (poly = many) (mer come from meros =
part)
Consist of many smaller molecules (monomers) that are connecte to form the
larger macromolecule
Hundreds, even thousands, of monomer units combine ot make one polymer
molecule
Natural Polymers Many natural substances exist as polymers (Starch, Cotton
[cellulose], Wood [cellulose], Proteins)
First modified natural polymer (1870’s)
Celluloid produced by treating cellulose with nitric acid
First synthetic polymers (1909)
Bakelite produced from phenol and formaldehyde
Thermoset polymer heated to harden, forming a crosslink network; cannot be
melted or remolded; decomposed when heated at high temperature
Polyethylene (one of the most common synthetic polymers)
High-density Polyethylene (HDPE) most linear molecules that pack closely
together; Pack closely together, well-ordered, crystalline structure; Rigid and
have good tensile strength
Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE) More highly branched form of polyethylene;
not crystalline; flexible
Thermoplastic Polymer softens when heated
Addition Polymerization Monomers add to one another in such a way that the resulting
polymer contains all atoms that are present in the monomers
Polystyrene
Polyvinyl Chloride
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Condensation Polymerization Small molecules such as water, alcohols, ammonia, or
HCl are released as by-products (Nylon 6 polyamide) (Polyester Polyethylene
Terephthalate (PET))
Properties of Polymers
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